Alice sat alone,
of the room, watching the others at the party. The only people she knew there
were Margaret and her husband. Margaret and she worked together in a bank.
Margaret was an older woman who took a motherly interest in Alice and had
invited her to the party.
The house was
full of people, all talking and laughing. Everyone, that is, except her. There
was a young man standing near
Alice. He looked
across at her several
not to notice him. When he wasn't looking, she glanced at him shyly. But when he
looked at her again, she pretended to be interested in the pattern of the
Margaret came into the room. 'Enjoying yourself?', she asked.
yes. It's very nice.'
don't seem to be talking to anyone.'
that's just because I ... I prefer to sit and listen for a while', Alice
'But you can't do
that all evening. Come on! Let
introduce you to a few people!'
don't worry about
Margaret. I'll be all right. I will, really!'
at her doubtfully. Then her husband shouted something to her from the kitchen
and she hurried back to help him bring more food into the room.
Alice was still sitting in the
of the room. The young man had got involved in a conversation with another girl.
Alice had exchanged a few words with an older woman whom she
as a customer from the bank. She kept looking at the door, hoping that someone
else she knew would come in. After a while, she got up and went into the
kitchen, where Margaret was surrounded by a crowd of people.
asked. Met any interesting people?'
yes. Lots. It's really been very interesting. Thanks a lot for inviting
Alice said, looking at her watch.
'You're not going
you?', Margaret asked.
'Yes, I'm afraid
I have to. I'm expecting a phone call from a friend. I told him I'd be home by
She unlocked the
front door of her small
and walked in. It was cold and dark. She lit the gas fire and turned on the
television. 'Why is it that whenever I go to parties, nobody ever talks to
She lit the gas fire
= Gas fireplace -
let alone the costs -
Old and young,
single and married, rich and poor - anyone can be lonely, irrespective of the
number of friends, family and
contacts they actually have. Some people
happy with one or two
lost without a crowd - and others still
lost in a crowd.
According to a
poll, specially commissioned for The Sunday
cent of the population
lonely - with women, the elderly, the young, the single parent, the widowed and
the unemployed most at risk. Middle-aged married men with jobs and cars
the least likely to be lonely. Young mothers at home with children under five
particularly vulnerable to loneliness and depression, especially if the
transition from working wife to housebound mother has been a sudden one.
particularly those who move to a new area on retirement, may be isolated from
their families and friends. Illness, disability and fear of going out alone also
combine to turn many pensioners into prisoners in their own homes.
shyness and self-consciousness may make them awkward in the company of their
peers and the opposite sex. Single parents feel cut
from a couple-orientated society. Divorce can be shattering to the self-esteem.
Divorced people may miss the companionship of even the most unsatisfactory
marriage as, of course, do the widowed. With so many contacts being made through
work, unemployment can also
Elderly – (com)
Peer - nesse
We decided to
give a party last week! So as you can imagine, I've been busy sending out
invitations, preparing food, etc. Then, a couple of days before the party, my
sister unexpectedly arrived to stay for a week. She really is the most
impractical person I know! She kept trying to 'help', and, at the end, I became
so cross that I sent her
to my neighbour's while I finished the party preparations. By the
our first guests arrived, I was beginning to regret the whole idea. But
well. Because most of the people already knew one another, it didn't take long
for the party to get going. However, I'm not sure if Alice, one of the girls
from work, enjoyed it - she's terribly shy and this sometimes makes her appear
rather unfriendly. Although I'd like to help her, it's difficult when people
don't help themselves, isn't it? I wonder what you've been doing lately? Please
write soon and tell
all your news.
Love to all the
the bus from the university and began walking towards the
she shared with two other students. On her way she had to buy some food and
stopped in one of the shops in the street. It was run by an Asian family, and
although the prices there were a little higher than in the big supermarket
further down the street, she did a lot of her shopping there. The vegetables
were fresher and they had various things she couldn't get elsewhere. Mr. Patel,
the owner of the shop, was checking through a list, but smiled, as he always
did, when he saw her come in.
'How's Mrs. Patel
today? She asked.
better. But only a little better, I'm afraid, 'Mr. Patel sighed.
'Well, I hope she
gets out of
She picked up a
wire basket and walked towards the back of the shop, where the rice was kept.
The shop was divided by three long aisles, with rows of shelves crammed with all
sorts of things. Except for her and Mr. Patel, there were only two other people
there. They were two teenage
and they were standing at the end of one of the aisles. She glanced at them as
she passed. They were both wearing long, old-fashioned overcoats and they looked
rather ridiculous in them because the coats were too big. But such things were
'Watch out, stupid', she heard one of them whisper to the other. She walked on
to the next aisle and found the rice she was looking for. Then she heard
something else. It sounded like a tin dropping on the floor. She peered through
a gap in the shelf and caught a glimpse of one of the
bending down. She saw him pick up a tin of food. But instead of putting it in
the shopping basket, he dropped it into the inside pocket of his long overcoat.
Jennifer glanced back down the aisle. She could see Mr. Patel at the cash till,
still checking through his list. Then she looked through the gap in the shelf
still had their backs to her. 'Come on, let's get out of here', she heard one of
them say. At the same
she saw one of them put another tin in his overcoat pocket. They moved away from
her. She could no longer see what they were doing or hear what they were saying.
When she got to
the till, the two
were in front of her. She watched them pay for the few things they had in the
basket. They had both buttoned their coats and fastened them with their belts.
Mr. Patel did not seem suspicious at all. He even smiled at them as they were
about to leave. Jennifer opened her mouth to say something.
Cash till -
through a gap in the shelf and caught a glimpse of one of the
bending down.'' -
e deu uma
Three long aisles
with rows of shelves crammed with all sorts of things -
Wire basket -
Julia is an
extremely intelligent woman who is making a successful career for herself as a
financial analyst. In addition to her first-class knowledge of economics, she is
able to make a clear assessment of complex problems and make decisions quickly.
As well as these valuable qualities, Julia quickly establishes good relations
with her colleagues, and is well liked. Moreover, her delightful sense of humour
and charming personality make her a valuable asset to the company.
Julia tends to act a little impulsively. However, this has not had any serious
repercussions in her work. Although she is generally a tolerant person,
occasionally she reacts negatively if some small habit, such as nail-biting,
annoys her. Julia has the potential to reach the most senior level in the
company. However, she is feeling slightly unsettled at present, and unsure about
her future plans.
Nail-biting - o
I'm fond of my
sister, but I do get annoyed with her sometimes. She's always arguing with
and, even when she's wrong, she never apologises. I think she should! She is
going to get married to an Australian next month. She has visited his family
near Sydney and liked Australia very much. They're not sure where they'll live
when they're married - it might be in Perth. The two of us were going to the
States for our summer holiday this year, but that's
now. It's a pity because I was hoping to see some relatives in Boston. Anyway,
I've decided I am going
instead with some friends who
spending a couple of months there.
I'm fond of - Eu
I do get annoyed
A few months ago,
I moved into a very small
for years with my parents. It is the first
I have ever had a place of my own and I am very fond of it, despite the lack of
space. I had been in the
only for a few days when a friend phoned and practically begged
to let him stay for a while. He explained he had lost his job recently but was
sure he would find another one very soon. Since I thought it would be only for
I said yes.
More than a month
has gone by since then and my friend
no sign of moving out. There
only two small rooms in the
plus the small bathroom and tiny kitchen. He has more or less taken over the
front room. What is more, he has brought a lot of clothes and piles and piles of
books and old gramophone records with him and I can hardly get in there any
more. I don't like sharing the bathroom, either. In fact, I have discovered that
I just don't like other people
A few days ago, I
decided that enough was enough and that he would have to leave. I intended to
tell him that I wanted the place to myself again, but somehow he persuaded
to let him stay longer. He still hasn't found a job and can't afford to rent a
room of his own. And there just doesn't seem to be anyone else he can stay with.
Of course, I'd
like to help him as much as possible. He is, after all, a friend! But there
limits, even to friendship. I just don't know what I'll do if he is there much
longer. Do you think I am being selfish in wanting him out? What would you
Begged - implorou
Can't afford -
Despite the lack
of space –
He has more or less taken over
the front room -
When James got up
that morning, his wife, Joyce, was still asleep. So was his daughter. He crept
downstairs, trying to make as little noise as possible, and put on his old
tracksuit and running shoes. Then he slipped out of the house. Within a few
minutes he was
through the woods that let to the sea. The sun was just breaking through the
early morning mist. It was going to be another fine day. But James hardly
'My God, I'll be
thirty in a few days. What have I done with my life?' he asked himself. As
this question made him think of his brother, Hugh. Hugh was a brilliant
electronics engineer, and even though he was only a few years older than James,
he already had his own company, which specialised in manufacturing delicate
computer components. Hugh was earning a lot of money. Hugh had an elegant
in London and a white Mercedes sports car to go with it. Hugh was engaged to the
beautiful daughter of a rich banker. Hugh was a success: There was no doubt
James came out of
the woods and ran along the seashore. The bay stretched for
on either side. It was one of the most beautiful parts of the coast. Poets had
written about it. Artists had painted it. But James hardly noticed it that
'What am I? Just
a schoolteacher in a sleepy seaside town!' he said to himself. But James knew
that he was very good at his job and it gave him a lot of satisfaction. The
children and their parents respected him. However, he also knew he would never
earn a great deal of money at it, even though life was comfortable enough. His
wife was also working again part-time in a travel agency. Mandy, their daughter,
was a bright, healthy child and had just started kindergarten.
Hugh woke up
early that morning, too, feeling terrible. He had been up late the night before,
entertaining clients. His mouth felt dry. His head felt as if it were splitting
open. He staggered into the bathroom, looking for some aspirin. But then he
remembered what his doctor had told him. He had a suspected ulcer, and taking
aspirin wasn't good for his stomach. Groaning slightly, he stumbled into the
kitchen, where he made himself a pot of
strong coffee. He sat there, drinking it and thinking about the next few days.
All sorts of problems had piled up.
He had agreed to
supply a German firm with a large number of computer components. In order to
make a profit on the deal, he had to keep his own production costs down to the
minimum and meet a strict deadline. But the deadline was only a few days away,
and he had run into a number of difficulties in making the components. The
German firm was going to phone
that day and ask all sorts of difficult questions.
Then there was
Helen, his fiancée. They had had another row and she had told him that she
didn't want to see him or talk to him for several days. She said that she
to think things through'. Hugh wished he could at least see her over the
weekend, but he had to go to Buffalo on Friday. He hated the place, and it meant
staying in a
for several days, which he hated even more. But he was trying to get an
important order from an American company there.
When James got
back, his wife had got up. 'Had a good run?', she asked, smiling. He smiled back
at her. He dashed upstairs to take a shower and looked into Mandy's bedroom on
the way. She was still asleep, with her arms around a big teddy bear. 'I suppose
I've got a lot to be thankful for', he said to himself. Then he thought of Hugh
'I wonder what
he's doing now. Probably getting ready to go abroad again on another business
trip, the lucky devil!' he thought.
of the house" - saiu rapidamente
All sorts of
problens had piled up -
tinham se acumulado
Crept - rastejou
subiu rapidamente os
He stumbled into
In order to - a
Just a schoolteacher in a
sleepy seaside town -
On the deal no
Row - neste
the bathroom - foi cambaleando
The bay stretched for
on either side - a
se olhasse )
Think things through'(think
through é uma
I am replying to
your advert for a pen friend. You'd probably like to know something about
so here goes!
I'm nineteen and
Salisbury. I left school two years ago, did a secretarial course and now work in
a fairly large company. My job is
varied, and I've made some really good friends at work. I usually go with some
of them for a
you still at school or have you got a job?
In the evenings
and at weekends, I usually go
or to the
What do you do in your spare
I'm not very good at sports - except swimming. Do you do any sports?
I live with my parents and brother. He's younger than
and still at school. His exams
only a few weeks away ( poor thing! ). Have you got any brothers or sisters?
famous for its cathedral, of course, but it’s also very good for shopping.
something about the place where you live.
I write, I'll send you a photo of my family. Do you think you'll ever come to
England? It would be nice to meet up sometime.
Fairly large company -
Even though the house was badly in need of decoration and repair, the Longs
decided to buy it. It was rather big, the price was very reasonable, and it was
in a part of London not too far from the centre. Both Mr. and Mrs. Long had jobs
in the City, so this was important. There was also a good school nearby for
their six-year-old daughter, Jane, to go to. It was not until
that they discovered who the house had once belonged to and the terrible things
that had happened there.
The first sign of
trouble came when they had the house redecorated, just before they moved in. The
workmen who did the job refused to work in the house after dark. "It gives
the creeps, it does", one of them said. Then, when the Longs started
in the house, they noticed how cold the rooms were, even though it was in the
middle of a warm summer. Not long after that, their daughter began waking up in
the middle of the night, screaming. She said she could hear strange voices and
that they belonged to dead people. The voices told her that they had been killed
in the house and that they had been buried in the garden. 'At first we thought
she was just having nightmares, but then my husband and I heard strange noises
as well', Mrs. Long says. Sometimes, they both heard more than just strange
noises. 'One night, just before George and I went to bed, we heard a woman's
voice that seemed to come from nowhere. It said only a few words, "No, no!
Stop!", but we both heard it very clearly', Mrs. Long claims.
this, Mrs. Long happened to learn from a neighbour more about the history of the
house. It had belonged to Gordon Taplow, one of the last men to be hanged in
He had been found guilty of the murder of three different women, and was
suspected of having killed several more. He had killed the women in the house
and then had dismembered the victims' bodies in the kitchen before getting rid
of them. After his arrest and execution in 1959, the house was bought and sold
but nobody ever lived in it for very long. Months, and even years, passed
in it at all. Mr. and Mrs. Long
convinced they know the reason for this. 'What happened to the bodies of the
other women the man is supposed to have killed? He must have buried them
somewhere. We think it was in the garden. The house is haunted by their ghosts.
Neither my husband nor I
superstitious. But what other possible explanation is there?' Mrs. Long says.
police dug up parts of the garden more than twenty years ago and found nothing,
the Longs want them to do the job again, this
more thoroughly. Mrs. Long recently had an interview with a police inspector
about this. 'He was very polite but I could see he thought I was just being
hysterical. But if they don't do it, we'll have the job done by someone else,
even though we can hardly afford it', she says.
the creeps, it does -
Dug up - cavou
Rather big -
Thoroughly - de
Last Saturday, I
happened to be in
city on the south coast of
Before I caught the train back to
late in the afternoon, I went into a big
restaurant near the station. As soon as I walked through the door, I noticed a
certain air of tension. But in spite of this, and even though I was about the
only woman in the place, I decided to stay and have a cup of coffee.
It was crowded
most of whom were wearing either blue and white scarves or black and white ones.
Despite this difference, they all looked pretty much alike, although a few of
them had safety pins sticking through their
and heavy brass rings in their ears, and spikey haircuts in vivid shades of
blue, green and purple. But all of them had on the same tight
that looked too
for them and denim jackets with lots of badges.
Then I noticed
that the kids with black and white scarves were all sitting together at the back
and looked unhappy about something, whereas those with blue and white scarves
had big grins on their
Some of them were chanting 'Pompey, Pompey!', which is the name
people use for Portsmouth, and then 'Two-One, Two-One!' This seemed to annoy the
gang with black and white scarves, and I heard shouts of 'Stuff it!' and other
things I wouldn't want to see in print.
I had just sat
down with my coffee when there was a scuffle near the doors leading to the
with a blue and white scarf had just come out, and almost tripped over the foot
of a kid with a black and white scarf. They exchanged a few words. I couldn't
hear exactly what they were but they must have been insults because one of the
suddenly punched the other. Then I saw some kind of object flying through the
air. It might have been an ashtray or a cup, but, whatever it was, it hit the
with the blue and white scarf on the head with a thud, and he fell to the floor
like a stone. That was when all hell broke loose. Kids from the two groups
started kicking and punching each other. Chairs and even tables were hurled. The
must have been wrecked, but I didn't stay to see. I got out of there as fast as
I could. However, I
read in the newspapers that about twenty youths were arrested that day in
Portsmouth as a result of a riot and that several were taken to
with various injuries, including stab wounds.
the discussion about boxing on television last night, I felt I must write to
you. Before I saw this programme, I had not given any thought of the dangers of
boxing. However, thanks to your programme, I am now keenly aware of the dangers,
particularly of brain damage. Since the government seems unwilling to ban
boxing. despite the evidence that is harmful, it seems that the
public must make a stand.
I am particularly
concerned about the dangers to young
who attend boxing clubs. As soon as they step into a ring, they
in danger. But, in spite of all the publicity about the harmful effects of
boxing, parents still let their
Although I believe that people should be free to choose their own sports, I feel
that boxing is not a sport and should be banned.
I would like to
invite your readers to write to
their own views on this matter. If there is sufficient support, I shall start a
'Ban Boxing' campaign.
Make a stand –
Punched – soqueou
Scuffle - n 1
stuff it '' -
Spikey haircuts –
( spike significa
Stab wounds –
That was when all
hell broke loose – “Foi
They all looked
pretty much alike –
Tripped over – tropeçado
on behalf of everyone here this afternoon, it is my privilege to welcome our
Mr. Jeffrey Archer. It is indeed a great honour and a pleasure to have such a
distinguished guest, and I am sure that, like
all looking forward very much to his talk. Mr. Archer really needs no
introduction - he is well known both as a politician and as a successful author.
You may, however, be less aware of other talents which Mr. Archer possesses. I
was intrigued to read in his entry in 'Who's Who' that he was a first class
athlete in his Cambridge days, and, indeed, he ran for his country. Having been
privileged to hear Mr. Archer on previous occasions, I know that we have a
lively and entertaining afternoon ahead, and so, without further delay, I'm
going to ask Mr. Archer to speak on the topic he has selected for this
afternoon, "Things I wish I'd known when I was 18".
All leos like to
At all –
Awfully – terrivelmente
Boarding school –
Found out – descobriram
How valiable –
Hunting man – caçador
Outburst - n 1
etc.). 2 afloramento.
Sign of Leo –
Is there a secret
to good health? I mean, is there some way we can achieve it which is not
isn't a secret. However, there is a great deal of ignorance, even among
supposedly educated people, about how to be reasonably healthy.
Well, what advice
do you give, then?
... to begin with, take
I believe that one of the greatest dangers to health in Britain and other
countries ... particularly developed countries ... is the kind of food we tend
Such as that
great national institution, the British breakfast, for example, Ham and eggs. Or
the kind of lunch so many people in this country have: sausage and
Or all the convenience foods like hamburgers. Or even things we regard as
'healthy', such as full-fat milk. Or cheddar cheese. The list is endless.
What's wrong with
consumption of such things
to the overproduction of cholesterol, which in turn results in heart attack.
but what exactly is cholesterol?
It's a ...
wax-like substance ... yellowish ... and it's produced naturally in our livers.
We all need some cholesterol for survival.
Well, if we need
it, in what way is it bad for us?
Too much of it is
bad for us. It builds up in our arteries, causing them to get narrower, so that
our blood supply has difficulty in getting through ... and this, of course, can
eventually end in a heart attack or stroke. The point I'm trying to make here is
that, even though we all need some cholesterol in order to insulate our nerves,
and to produce cell membranes and hormones, the things many of us eat and even
to the overproduction of cholesterol. And this is very dangerous.
How can we avoid
this overproduction of cholesterol?
By cutting down
our consumption of
fats: things like red meat, cheese, eggs, and so on. And by increasing our
consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, and also by eating more potatoes,
Potatoes? But ... aren't such things fattening?
potatoes or bread that makes us fat. It's what we put on such things! Cheese,
So anything we
like, anything that's delicious, is bad for us. Isn't that what you're saying?
simply saying we eat too much of these things. And there
many ways of preparing delicious food without using such large quantities of
Last of all, what
about exercise? You recently warned against certain forms of exercise, which you
said could be dangerous.
What I said was
that if people aren't used to getting
and vigorous exercise, they should begin slowly, and not try to do too much at
the beginning! I also said that certain
can be dangerous, particularly if you aren't used to playing them. A number of
due to sudden, twisting movements that
What kinds of
exercise do you recommend, then?
swimming, cycling, brisk walking ... exercise that is rhythmic and gentle, and
above all, sustained. That is, done for at least fifteen minutes uninterruptedly
at least three
a week. We all need such exercise, and the fact is that too few of us get enough
of it, particularly if we live in large cities and regularly use cars.
following sentences in order to answer the question.
believes that a lot of milk and cheese
good for us.
2- Cholesterol is
something that helps cause heart attacks.
3- We should
avoid all cholesterol.
and potatoes do not make us fat.
5- Not all forms
According to the
text, is it true or false?
A) T, T, F, F,
T B) F, F, F, T, F C) F, T,F, T,
T D) T, T,F, T, F E) F, T, F, F, T
ahead – à
looking forward – esperando
On behalf of –
TEXT 14 - QUESTIONS OF CONSCIENCE
My parents say
that I'm lazy and immoral. They say all I want to do is lie about all day,
I seem a parasite to them, totally unreliable and irresponsible. That's what
they say about
So why argue?
Brisk walking -
- é o
We arrived at
10.00 in our twinned town of
Norway, and were met by the secretary of their Chamber of Commerce. We were
given a conducted tour of the town, during which we visited the splendid
cathedral, an impressive new
development and the Town
A nearby restaurant provided a traditional Norwegian lunch, which was served by
waiters and waitresses in national dress. The lunch was attended by the Mayor of
Trondheim, who welcomed us most warmly. In the afternoon, a
was held at which a number of important issues were discussed, including the
visit of a group of Trondheim
government officials to our town next year, and possible collaboration between
various companies in our two towns.
closed at 18.00.
possui as mesmas
was held at which a number of important issues - uma
foi realizada na
Delivery – nesse
There's a lot
more to listening than hearing.
Most of us have
perfectly good ears.
So why, then,
we such perfectly awful listeners, listening on the average at a 25% level of
The fact is,
there's a lot more to listening than hearing.
After we hear
something, we must interpret it. Evaluate it. And finally, respond to it. That's
And it's during
this complex process that we run into all kinds of trouble.
For example: We
prejudge, sometimes even disregard a
based on his appearance or delivery.
We let personal
ideas, emotions or prejudices distort what a person has to say.
subjects we consider too difficult or uninteresting.
And because the
brain works four
faster than most people speak, we too often wander into distraction.
Yet as difficult
as listening really is, it's the one communication skill we're never really
Well, as a
corporation with more than 80,000 employees, we at Sperry
making sure we use our ears to full advantage.
up expanded listening programmes that Sperry personnel from our divisions
worldwide can attend.
representatives. Sperry Univac computer engineers. Even the Chairman of the
that effective listening adds a special dimension to what we can do for our
customers. And when you speak to someone from Sperry we think you'll be equally
It's amazing what
more than two good ears can do.
We understand how
important it is to listen.
up expanded listening programmes that sperry personnel from our divisions
worldwilde can attend - ...
Sperry de todas as
chairman of the board
DECEMBER 31, 1983.
LOCKED UP 31
YEARS FOR KNOWING NO ENGLISH
Fishlock - New York
was locked up in a
institution after doctors decided he was mad. But they did not speak to him, nor
he to them, because he had no English and the authorities found no one who could
speak his dialect. Chinese.
Over the years he
learnt only a few words of English including 'Me
not crazy, why I here?'
He was right and
the doctors wrong. Now, after a four year
battle he is free and, at the age of 54, is learning to live outside an
institution. He has been awarded £ 140,000 compensation. He does not talk about
his 31 lost years.
arrived in the
United States as
an illegal immigrant and worked in a restaurant kitchen in San Francisco.
he moved to Chicago but learned no English because he lived his life within the
large Chinese community there.
He became ill
with tuberculosis and frightened, had a nervous breakdown. Doctors diagnosed
schizophrenia, but they found nobody to talk to him. His brother, also
in Chicago, did not volunteer to help him. He, too, was an illegal immigrant and
feared he would be deported if he made himself known.
spent his life in four institutions, talking with no one. It was not until 1978
that he had a conversation in his native tongue. He was taken out for a meal in
a Chinese restaurant and started talking to the cook.
He told the cook
his story and asked for help. The cook told the
worker accompanying him that in his view Mr.
was not mentally ill, and that started the process which led to his freedom this
He is now in the
care of Mr. Patrick Murphy, a court-appointed guardian. Mr. Murphy, a lawyer,
said yesterday: 'He is
with Chinese people who
helping to guide him back to
life. Naturally he has been damaged by being locked up for 31 years. He is
frightened that he will be sent back.'
BONNIE AND CLYDE
has heard about Bonnie Parker and
Clyde Barrow, two
criminals in the 1930's. They
almost romantic legends. But what was the reality?
Even before their
violent deaths in a police ambush in May, 1934, Bonnie and
Clyde were on
their way to becoming legends. But since then, the legend has grown and grown.
At least six different films have been made about them. Of these, the most
successful was Bonnie and Clyde, starring Faye Dunaway and Warren Beatty,
in 1967. The two were depicted as a romantic, rather glamorous pair who robbed
banks but did not steal from poor people. Bonnie Parker ( Faye Dunaway ) was
tall and beautiful. Clyde Barrow(Warren Beatty ) was handsome, an
with a gun, and cool in danger. But was the reality?
Clyde Barrow was
born in 1909 near
the sixth of eight children. His father was an illiterate farmer. As a child,
Clyde was fond of capturing small birds, breaking one of their wings and then
watching them try to fly. He hated school and left as soon as he could, at the
age of sixteen. By the
he was seventeen, he was already in trouble with the law for stealing turkeys.
Then he started stealing cars. They fascinated him. From then until his death at
the age of twenty-five, he became increasingly violent, robbing small stores,
sometimes killing their owners and then
up banks. He had a tendency to panic in difficult situations. He shot wildly,
killing not only policemen but innocent bystanders. More professional criminals,
such as John Dillinger, despised him for 'giving a bad name to bank robbers'.
which was fairly typical of his style happened on Christmas Day, 1932. He and a
younger criminal, W.D. Jones, decided to steal a new car they saw parked in
front of a house in the town of
W.D., who was supposed to be a good mechanic, couldn't get the car started, so
he and Clyde started to push it away. But the owner, a young salesman, ran out
into the street and tried to stop them. Clyde shot him. By this
W.D. had managed to start the car, and they drove
leaving the salesman to die in front of his horrified wife and father-in-law.
Shortly afterwards, they abandoned the car and escaped in another, driven by
Bonnie Parker was
also born near
Dallas, in 1910.
Her parents were devout Christians who went to church every Sunday, prayed every
day, and never drank or smoked. Bonnie was good at school, although one of her
teachers said she was a 'a
of a show-off'. She was very small, but despite this, could fight and beat
older, bigger girls and even
She was very fond of small
and went to the
to see love stories. She worked as a waitress for a
in Dallas, but then lost her job in the Great Depression. She met Clyde at a
friend's house early in 1930. Something about him fascinated her. When he was
arrested for robbery shortly afterwards, he managed to persuade her to smuggle a
pistol to him in prison, even though she said she did not like guns. He used it
From that point
onwards, Bonnie became more and more involved. She lived with
Clyde, helped him
to rob and steal, and learned how to use guns herself. On Easter Sunday, 1934,
she and Clyde and a third man were sitting in their car, which was parked in a
lonely side road near the town of Grapevine, Texas. Two policemen rode up on
motorcycles and stopped a
distance away. They got
their bikes and began walking towards the car, casually. It was obvious that
they did not know who was in the car. They had their guns in their holsters.
Shots rang out from the parked car. The two policemen fell to the ground,
bleeding. A farmer happened to be sitting under a tree not far away. He said he
saw Bonnie get out of the car with a shotgun in her hand, and then walk over to
the body of one of the policemen. He was still breathing and groaned. Bonnie
fired the shotgun twice into his
and then, according to the farmer, laughed, saying that 'his head bounced just
like a rubber ball'.
Less than two
she and Clyde were dead, killed one morning in their car by a hail of police
bullets. As the car with the bodies in it was towed to a nearby town, a mob of
schoolchildren surrounded it. They tore pieces of clothing and hair from the
bodies and even smeared their hands in the still fresh blood. The legend had
already become bigger than life.
A hail of police bullets – uma
up banks - assaltando
Towed - rebocado
THE UNCLE I
I hardly knew
him. But what he did for
has helped to change my life. Perhaps I had better explain.
My name is Bruno
Caselli. I was born here in
London but my
parents both came from
My father died when I was nine. It's strange, you know, but for a
I felt as if he had somehow let
down, as if it were his fault that he had a bad heart. Children can be like
that. They often behave as if their parents had only one purpose in life, and
that was to be their mothers and fathers. They don't see them as
I'm an only
child. My mother and I were very poor for a
She had a brother, who lived in Australia. His name was Eduardo. Uncle Eduardo
came to London several
to see us. He was very fond of
for walks in Hyde Park. But Australia is a long way away and we didn't see very
much of him.
I went to
Art School when I
was eighteen but what I really wanted to study was architecture. However, it is
a difficult profession to get into, and requires long
I worked for a
as a technical illustrator but didn't make very much money from it. I even did
office work for a
When I got up to go to work in the mornings, I felt as if I were going to
prison. That's how much I hated it.
One day, nine
years ago, when I was twenty-two, I got a letter from a lawyer in
that Uncle Eduardo had died and that he had some other important news for
He refused to say what it was until he came to London personally to see
We met in a
in London a few weeks
The news was that Uncle Eduardo had made
a lot of money in Australia and had left it all to
I could hardly believe it. I felt like jumping up and down for joy. But I
didn't, of course.
I gave part of
the money to my mother. I used the rest to study architecture and then to start
my own business. I specialise in converting old factories and warehouses into
accommodation. Even on a dull day you don't get the impression that the room is
dark and gloomy. The business is doing well. I have lots of contracts. But none
of this would have been possible if it hadn't been for Eduardo, the uncle I
Chirp - n 1
cricrido. // vt+vi 1
a lot of money - tinham "feito"
I felt like –
- THE PRICE OF AN EDUCATION
This article, by
Jill Robinson, a journalist, first appeared in The Guardian on
1 February 1984.
My father died
almost eight years ago, but is only recently that I have been able to think of
him without a feeling of intense dislike. Had he still been alive, it is
doubtful that I would have sent him a birthday card, let alone a present. To say
that we did not get on would be an understatement. The root of the trouble was
his attitude to women, especially his wife and daughter, whom he regarded as
little better than domestic servants. He was 52 years older than
old enough to be my grandfather rather than parent, so there was a double
To this was added
the fact that he placed little value on a
academic education, having himself left school at 12 and made his own way in the
world. He could see no point in his daughter continuing at school beyond the
minimum age ( then 15 ). In despair, my mother kept telling him that the school
considered that I was university
Father would have none of it. 'What good is a university education to a girl?'
he demanded, and went on to point out that he had become a successful
businessman without the benefit of any college apart from the 'University of
My refusal to
leave school marked the beginning of a long feud between us. He was especially
annoyed that my best subjects were geography and Latin, which he considered of
no use whatsoever: the only subject in which he took any interest was my
weakest, domestic science.
lunchtime was an ordeal for my mother and myself. Father would criticise her for
having spoiled the beef ( he liked it very underdone in the centre ) and I would
be scolded for failing to produce a palatable Yorkshire pudding.
Then one Sunday,
my mother managed to get the beef just right, and I produced what appeared to be
a perfect Yorkshire pudding. We waited for his verdict. 'The beef's not bad, '
he said, grudgingly. Encouraged by this praise, my mother asked what he thought
of the pudding? 'Why, it's more like a cake. You've got the texture all wrong,
my girl,' he said, glaring at
of his glasses.
moment on, I made up my mind never to try to please him again in any way. I
realised that, according to my father, my best could never be good enough. I did
not tell him when I achieved the best O-level* results in school that summer (
even gaining a good result in cookery ). I let him find out from one of his
friends at the Conservative Club, who congratulated him on having such a clever
daughter. He replied that he had no idea what the man was talking about and came
home furious. He told
that I should have got even better results than I did.
He insisted that
I should now leave school. As a concession, he said he was prepared to let
do a secretarial course, as the secretaries of today were the bosses' wives of
tomorrow. I refused this offer and enrolled for A-level* courses in geography,
geology and Latin.
For two years
there was war in the house. Father would turn the radio up full
so that I could not concentrate on my homework. 'She won't go to university,' he
said, 'because I shall refuse to fill in the forms. 'He knew I would not be able
to go without a contribution by him towards the cost of the studies.
Then his business
went into liquidation and I became eligible for the full grant from the state.
What was a disaster for Father was good luck for
as a parental contribution was no longer required. Mother filled in the forms,
and I left home, followed soon afterwards by my mother. However, all the years
of stress and worry had undermined her health, and she died suddenly, soon after
I came back to attend her
Father was there but we did not speak. I did not see him again.
* Note: Until
1987 O-levels were the first important exams taken in British secondary schools,
usually at the age of 16. A-levels
higher exams, taken by students before going to university.
A long feud - uma
Generation gap -
Grudgingly - de
Palatable yorkshire pudding -
Would be scolded - seria
NIGHT AND DAY
This is an
artist's impression of a city of the future, perhaps a hundred or two hundred
years from now.
In 100 years'
there may be huge
satellites circling the Earth or the Sun. They will be big enough to support
100,000 or more people on them. How will life in such a 'space colony' be
different from life today?
DR ELLA was one
of the few people in the space colony who could remember what life on Earth was
like. She had spent part of her childhood there. Although she was over 80, she
still gave lectures at the
Development, where future teachers were trained. One day, just after she had
given a talk on 'Child Education, past and present,' a student asked her if
there was anything she missed when she compared life in the space colony with
life on Earth.
'No very little,'
she answered in a clear, strong voice. She hesitated for a moment. 'Except,
perhaps the sight and sound of birds,' she added. The students looked at each
other. 'Birds? What were they?' one of them asked. 'Small
with feathers. They could fly and made strange, chirping noises, ' Dr. Ella
yes, I've read about them in the history books. But weren't they rather dirty?
Didn't they carry germs?' Another student said.
Dr. Ella smiled.
Yes, I suppose so. But they were beautiful and they did sing beautifully!
Particularly at dawn and dusk .... Do you know what such things were? Just
before day and night. Hmm. And that's something else I suppose I miss. A
night and day.'
She looked out of
the window and up at the huge dome that was the space colony's 'sky'. 'The
engineers had invented special chemical clouds that brought rain at
fixed intervals at certain
of the year, and they also developed special kinds of 'nightlight' and
'daylight' but somehow it just wasn't the same,' Dr. Ella said.
raised her hand. Dr. Ella noticed there was something different about her. Her
hair was longer and wasn't combed as carefully.
'But wasn't there ... isn't there ... more freedom on Earth than here?' she
asked. Dr. Ella was careful to keep smiling. 'What exactly do you mean by
"freedom"?' she said. 'Well, for instance, the freedom to have children without
getting permission first. And the freedom to keep your children once you've had
them. The freedom to live where you want to live. The freedom to choose a job
for yourself and not have it chosen for you. Isn't that better?
Dr. Ella shook
her head. 'Just think what happens if people
given that kind of "freedom", as you call it! Children learn bad habits from
unsuitable parents. On Earth there is
waste and pollution. Here, of course, we have a few
undesirables who smoke and drink. But we send them to special health and
education centres where they
cured. Our lives
carefully controlled, but they
also much safer and healthier. People aren't allowed to be unhappy here, as they
on Earth. No, young lady, I can assure you that I don't miss that kind of
"freedom", at all!'
The student was
about to say something more when one of the teachers suddenly stood up and
thanked Dr. Ella for 'a most useful and informative talk'. The other students
applauded politely and left without further questions. The teacher looked rather
'Most of the
well behaved. But there
always a few like the one who asked the last question. Troublemakers!' he said.
troublemakers' Dr. Ella replied. 'Just romantics. That's what's so wrong with
such ideas as "freedom". They seem very attractive, very romantic at first. But
it's so different in reality, isn't it? If only such people realised how
dangerous such ideas really
Long enshinired -
( FUVEST-SP )
The notion that
psychological stress makes us more likely to fall ill is at last beginning to be
taken seriously. Even the most sceptical of scientists
having to admit that there is something in this idea, long known in folklore. A
new rapidly developing field of research, known as psychoimmunology, is
uncovering ways in which the brain and the immune system interact to influence
our susceptibility to disease.
The immune system
recognises and counters foreign
such as bacteria and viruses, within the body. It is also involved in the body's
response to some forms of cancer an in autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid
arthritis, where the body "attacks" itself. Susceptibility to all these types of
disease therefore depends on how well the immune system works.
( "New Scientist", April 9,
Yamamoto, 44, is a Japanese businessman who visits the
While he was checking into a
on a recent visit to
Chicago, he put
his briefcase on the floor. A few minutes
Mr. Yamamoto reached down for it, but someone had stolen it. Inside the
briefcase were about $900 in Japanese currency, his passport, his credit cards,
photos of his family, and his return ticket to Japan.
A few days
Mr. Yamamoto returned to Tokyo, disappointed and disillusioned about the United
States. But three weeks
he received an
There was no letter, but it contained his credit cards, his airline tickets, and
The return address gave the name of Mr. Joseph Loveras in Chicago. Not long
after that, Mr. Yamamoto received another
sent by express delivery. Inside were money orders for more than $900. It also
contained a letter from Mr. Loveras that said, "I hope this money order and the
... will restore your faith in the people of Chicago." Mr. Yamamoto was puzzled.
he traveled to the United States, Mr. Yamamoto called on Mr. Loveras. Mr.
Loveras was a 67-year-old disabled veteran with a
income of $493 a month.
He explained that
he found the briefcase in a trash can while he was walking through a parking
lot. For some reason, the thief had not discovered the money or the airline
tickets in the
part of the briefcase and had just thrown the bag away. Mr. Loveras went to a
bank and changed the money into money orders, and he spent his own money to send
it to Japan. Mr. Yamamoto was very moved by Mr. Loveras's honesty. "I asked him
why he would go to all the trouble to return everything to
that if he had not done it, it would have made him feel bad for the rest of his
life." Now they have become friends, and Mr. Yamamoto visits Mr. Loveras every
he is in the United States.
I ASKED HIM WHY HE WOULD GO TO ALL THE TROUBLE TO
RETURN EVERYTHING TO
Stress on the job
costs American companies as much as $l50 billion a year in lower productivity,
unnecessary employee sick leave, and higher medical costs. Three-quarters of the
office workers today say they suffer from stress at work. Recently,
psychologists and doctors have begun to study the problem more closely. They
have discovered that the most stressful professions
those that involve danger and extreme pressure and those that carry a lot of
responsibility without much control.
The signs of
stress range from nervousness, anger, and frequent illness to forgetfulness and
problems. The best way to deal with stress is through relaxation, but sometimes
the only answer is to fight back or walk away.
Ten jobs with
school teacher police officer
journalist clerk in complaint department
signs of stress
pulse frequent illness
biting lack of concentration
increased use of
alcohol and drugs hunger
Some ways to cope
Maintain a sense
Get a massage
Ear more sensibly
Limit intake of
alcohol and caffeine
with family and friends
Say no to the
Quit your job
COMPLAINT DEPARTMENT –
NAIL BITING- O
fishermen were rescued yesterday from a small uninhabited island in the South
Pacific. The men had been lost for more than three months.
They had left
in a small fishing boat and planned to be gone for only a week. But on the fifth
day they ran into a typhoon, and it badly damaged their boat. Fortunately, none
of the men was hurt. After the storm passed, however, they found that the engine
wouldn't start. So their boat just drifted at sea for over a month. During this
the fishermen caught fish to eat and drank rainwater to stay alive.
Finally, the boat
drifted toward a small island. When it got
enough, the men jumped overboard and swam to the shore. On the island, they
found fresh fruit and vegetables to eat, and they continued to live
any fish they could catch.
lived on the island for another two months.
world's largest island or its smallest continent? Actually, it's both. In fact,
Australia is the only country that is also a continent. Although roughly the
size of the United States mainland, Australia has a population of about 16.5
million people. That makes this island nation one of the least densely populated
groups make up the Australian population? The majority of Australians
of English, Irish, Italian, Greek, Dutch, and Polish descent. However, over the
past 50 years, some 4 million people from more than 120 countries have made
Australia their home. This includes a large number of Asian and African
immigrants. About one percent of the population is Aborigine. The
people were the first settlers in Australia. They came from Asia about 40,000
In addition to
being the smallest continent,
Australia is also
the driest inhabited continent. Lush green pastures may be typical in sheep
farming areas ( there
by the way, more sheep than people in
However, much of the land, particularly in the Outback, is so arid that people
unable to live on it in its undeveloped state. That explains why most
Australians live in metropolitan areas, many of which line the coast, and why
Australia is considered one of the world's more urbanized countries.
Make friends with
a koala at one of our wildlife parks. Explore the lush, green bushland areas of
Mountains. Marvel at the
of our magnificent Great Barrier Reef. Or be awed by our ancient landscapes and
strange land formations. Whatever your interests, Australia has what you're
looking for. Lining our coast
some of the world's most sophisticated cities - like Melbourne, Brisbane, and
Sydney. There you can enjoy all the best in food, fashion, the arts, theater,
and sports. But you won't want to miss the wonders of the vast and amazing
Outback or the peaceful beauty of the Bush. Australia has a variety of unique
trees, plants, and wildlife. Discover them at any of our magnificent wildlife
preserves and parks.
No matter where
you go in
Australia, you'll find something to delight you. So surf or ski, relax on our
beautiful beaches, see
rock art painted thousands of years ago, and meet interesting people. Don't
wait. It's always a good
to visit Australia.
AWED - ADMIRADO
DESENVOLVIDAS ( REPLETAS DE BUSH(ARBUSTOS)
DRIEST – O
FIGHT BACK -
LINING - ALINHANDO
REACH DOWN –
THE OUTBACK - A
ESTÁ AFASTADA DAS
One night in
1828, the captain of a ship crossing the
was in his cabin when suddenly a man stepped into the room. The captain had
never seen the man before. The man said nothing, but he wrote a message on the
wall of the cabin and then disappeared. The message said, "Turn the ship and
sail to the northwest." The captain was surprised but decided to follow the
stranger's instructions. A few hours
he saw a small ship ahead that was sinking. The captain asked his crew to see
what had happened. They only found one person on board the ship. It was the same
man the captain had seen in his cabin. The man explained he had just awakened
from a deep sleep. In his sleep, he dreamed that he was going to be rescued.
In 1956, a young
Swedish sailor on a ship at sea became bored. He wrote a message and put it in a
bottle. The message gave his name and address and asked any pretty girl who
found it to write to him. Two years
an Italian fisherman found the bottle and showed the message to his daughter.
Just for a joke, she wrote to the sailor. He replied, and soon they started
writing to each other regularly. Then they decided to meet. Shortly after their
the sailor and the fisherman's daughter got married.
the sixteenth president of the
may have received a message about his own death in a dream. One night in 1865,
he had a strange dream. He dreamed he was inside the White House. A group of
people were standing around a coffin in the East Room of the White House. Many
of them were crying. "Who is dead?" he asked. "The president," someone answered.
"He was killed by an assassin." A few days after this, on April l4th,
was shot and killed while he was watching a play at Ford's Theater in
notable uses of spices and herbs in very early
were in medicine, in the making of holy oils and unguents, and as aphrodisiacs.
Priests employed them in worship, incantations, magical rites, and
of herbs, including those of
testify to the use of spices and herbs in the treatment of diseases.
Hippocrates, Galen, and Pedanius Dioscorides, among others, employed them. In
the first century of the Christian
Pliny the Elder, in his
comments a lot about the efficacy and healing powers of spices and Herb's in the
treatment of just about every disease known to his days. With moderation, they
were filtered down into the Middle Ages and
still known today.
FILTERED DOWN - FILTRADOS
HEALING - CURANDO.
Every year about
used in laboratory experiments. But in many countries today, a difficult
question is being asked: Do we have the right to use
The case for
The use of
in medical research has many practical benefits.
research has enabled researchers to develop treatments for many diseases, such
as heart disease and depression. It would not have been possible to develop
vaccines for diseases like smallpox and polio without
research. Every drug anyone takes today was tried first on
research is dependent on the use of
Which is more important: the life of a rat or that of a three-year-old child?
is also an excellent way of using unwanted
Last year, over twelve million
had to be killed in
shelters because nobody wanted them as pets.
The case against
The fact that
humans benefit cannot be used to justify using
in research any more than it can be used to justify experimenting on other
suffer a lot during these experiments. They
forced to live in small cages, and they may be unable to move.
Much of the
research that is carried out is unnecessary anyway.
have the same rights as humans do to be able to move freely and not to have pain
or fear forced on them. Researchers must find other ways of doing their
research, using cell culture and computer
There should be no
in research laboratories at all.
OUT – CONDUZIDA. 2) REALIZADA
Wind) Kindergarten is a preschool run by a city in southwest
China. It has 270
three to six-year-old children and 60
members. Three-quarters of Dongfeng's children
day students who attend school from about
to 6 P.M., Monday through Saturday. The others
boarding students who go home only on Wednesday evenings and on weekends.
On a typical day,
school starts at
7:30 A.M. with a
breakfast of steamed buns. After breakfast, when the day students arrive, the
the children in morning exercises followed by a song. Then the children sit down
and the teachers hand out wooden blocks.
Ms. Xiang says:
"Just pay attention to the picture of the building and build it. We must use our
minds, right? Build according to order." The children begin to work. Ms. Wang
says: "Keep still! There is no need to talk while you
for the children to go to the bathroom. After that, they play a
of tag. At 10:45, it's bath
for the boarding students. Three or four at a
the children bathe in large tubs. The children return to the classroom, and Ms.
Wang drills them in addition and subtraction.
lunch is delivered from the
kitchen. Ms. Xiang reminds the children to eat in silence and not to waste any
food. After lunch, it's
to go to the dormitory for a nap. Nap
noon to 2:30.
While the children rest, the teachers catch up on paperwork, eat, and relax in
the classroom next door.
to their classroom, the children
taught to recite a story. Then they move outside for some relay races. At 5
P.M., the children have supper - a meal of meat, vegetables, and rice. At 6
P.M., the parents arrive to pick up their children. Inside, the boarders listen
to music before getting ready for bed. By 7:45, the children
all in bed, and by 8:00 all
quiet and appear to be asleep.
INNER-CITY HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER-COLÉGIO
2) ACESSORIA DE UMA
A great place to
I love shopping
And one of my favorite stores there is
Well it's actually four stores in one.
with young people. You feel middle aged there if you're over 30!
is known for its incredible window
and fascinating boutiques. It even has its own theaters: you can see a movie or
a play when you need a break from shopping. And what I like most is that no one
bothers you. You can wander around as much as you like.
More than the
The restaurant I
enjoy the most when I'm in
London is the
Grill Room in the Savoy. It has excellent British as well as French food. It's a
very elegant place, and it's always full of interesting people, which is why I
like to go there. You're sure to see a duke or duchess, a well-known politician
or TV personality, or a beautiful model or a movie star. The restaurant reminds
of what London must have been like in the 1920s.
A wild week
One of the most
interesting events in the
U.S. is the Mardi
Gras in New Orleans. It's a week when people go crazy. The great thing is that
there's something different to do and see every day. There
parades, luncheons, pageants, and about ninety carnival balls. And when you get
tired of the carnival, you can listen to all kinds of music, from Fats Domino to
Andy Gibb, as well as some of
A ride you'll
The train ride
to Machu Picchu in
is one of the most spectacular in the world. It's on a narrow-gauge railway and
travels along the crest of the Andes Mountains. The views
unforgettable. Cuzco is very high, about 12,000 feet, and it's an incredible
place. It's the center of
culture. Throughout the trip, you can see all sorts of interesting people, and
then you finally arrive at the
City of the lncas.
( LUNCH )
GAUGE RAILWAY –
For many years,
people believed that the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus discovered
America. But, in
fact, others had reached America before him. Thousands of years ago, Asians
crossed the Bering Strait to Alaska and then moved through North America and on
to South America. Others have claimed that
from Europe and China also visited America. According to some people, sailors
from China crossed the Pacific to Mexico in A.D. 459. Irish explorers also may
have visited America in the ninth and tenth centuries. Irish people
in Iceland before the Norsemen, who came from
reached it in the ninth century. They may have sailed from
to America after the Norsemen arrived.
themselves may also have visited
were used to sailing long distances in their ships. Some Norse stories tell of a
Norseman called Bjarni Herjolfsson who visited America in A.D. 986. Another
Norseman named Leif Ericsson probably lived for a
in Newfoundland in Canada but then returned to Greenland. However, the first
Western explorer we can be sure about was Christopher Columbus. He left Spain on
on October l2th he arrived in the
thought he had arrived in the Indies (the name then used for Asia). That is why
he called the people Indians. He spent many weeks sailing around the Caribbean
and then went back to Spain. He made several more voyages to the
though he never actually landed in North America.
So, who was
named after? It was named after another Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, who
was friend of Columbus's and who
explored the coastline of the New World.
ICELAND - ISLÂNDIA
2) NORUEGUÊS. 3)
language, we talk of "my place", "our home" and "their neighborhood." We think
of our home as our own private territory. People need a place of their own,
where they can get away from others and feel a sense of being in
Even within families, we attach ourselves to personal territories; for example,
the kitchen tends to "belong" to the one who prepares the meals. We like to have
our own workrooms and our own bedrooms, or at least our own side of the bed!
People personalize their territories to emphasize where one ends and another
Within the home,
boundaries depend on the level of intimacy of different rooms and spaces. On the
doorstep and in the front hallway, we meet strangers and people making
deliveries. Friends and relatives
invited into the
room or kitchen, but rarely
people from outside the immediate family admitted to an adult's bedroom.
how attached we feel to them. A study of American university dormitories showed
how personalization of students' spaces was related to their sense of belonging
to the university as a whole. The investigators counted the number of personal
in the students' rooms, such as posters, stereos, and rugs, and found that the
students who dropped out had the least number of personal
The same thing is
true of neighborhoods.
around you in your own neighborhood.
at the houses or apartments that
personalization: new fences and boundary markers, door colours that stand out
from the rest, or freshly painted window frames. Noting how territories
marked should allow you to predict who is most likely to stay and become
involved in the community.
established in a new town or country, uprooted people
likely to put up pictures of their old home. The greater the number of
objects they put on
however, the more likely they
to stay and form relationships in their new community.
DOOR-STONE – Noun - 1
OUT – CAEM FOR A. 2) DEIXAM DE FREQUENTAR
FROM THE REST – DESTACAM-SE
UPROOTED – DESARRAIGADA. 2) EXTIRPADA 3) EXPULSAS
The use of fire
is spread throughout history. It started when a lightning produced the first
fire. The earliest user was Peking man, around 500,000 BC It was only around
7,000 BC that the Neolithic man acquired firemaking techniques. Even then it was
more convenient to keep fire burning permanently than to re-ignite it.
The importance of
fire in the ancient world is emphasized by the sacred fires of many religious
and myths, such as that of Prometheus. The myth tells that Prometheus stole the
fire from the gods and gave it to man.
PEKING MAN –
Disposing of the
garbage we produce every day is a
problem in cities around the world. In the United States, over 160 million
produced every year. Ten percent is recycled, ten percent is burned, and the
rest is put in landfills. But finding land for new landfills is becoming more
A city that has
solved this problem in an unusual way is
Tokyo, Japan. They have developed a totally new
to garbage disposal. The key to the operation is public cooperation. Families
must divide their garbage into six categories:
l garbage that
can be easily burned ( that is, combustible garbage ), such as kitchen and
garbage, such as small electrical appliances, plastic tools, and plastic toys
3 products that
poisonous or that cause pollution, such as batteries and fluorescent
4 bottles and
glass containers that can be recycled
containers that can be recycled
such as furniture and bicycles
in categories l to 5
collected on different days. ( Large
only collected upon request.) Then the garbage is taken to a center that
like a clean new office building or
Inside the center, special equipment is used to sort and process the garbage.
Almost everything can be reused: garden or kitchen trash becomes fertilizer;
combustible garbage is burned to produce electricity;
containers and bottles
recycled; and old furniture, clothing, and other useful
cleaned, repaired, and resold cheaply or given away. The work provides
employment for handicapped persons and gives them a
to learn new skills.
officials from cities around the world visit
Machida to see
whether they can use some of these ideas and techniques to solve their own
garbage disposal problems.
LIKE A CLEAN NEW OFFICE BUILDING OR
October 21, 1978,
Australian pilot Frederick Valentich, age 20, took
from Melbourne and headed toward a small island. It was the young man's first
night flight over water. It was a still, clear evening, and from his Cessna
aircraft Valentich had a perfect view of the sky above and the sea below.
however, Valentich reported to flight controllers in Melbourne that he was being
followed by a UFO. "It's a long shape," he reported, "with a green
sort of metallic-like, all shiny on the outside." A few minutes
he told the controllers, "That strange aircraft is hovering on
again." After that, Valentich stopped talking. For the next fourteen seconds the
traffic controllers heard a strange ringing sound. Then silence. Valentich and
his plane never reached the island, and no trace of him or his aircraft was ever
members of the public reported seeing strange phenomena in the sky over
night. An amateur photographer produced a photo of what looked like a large
object surrounded by
A NASA scientist, Richard Haines, heard about the story and began an
investigation. He analyzed Valentich's voice on
and the strange sound heard at the end of the
But he concluded that it was "unidentifiable." He decided that there were four
possible explanations for the mystery surrounding Valentich's disappearance: (1)
Valentich might have become confused and disoriented while flying his plane and
finally crashed; (2) he could have staged a deliberate hoax; (3) he could have
been the victim of a
secret advanced weapons test; or (4) he may have been captured by the occupants
of a UFO.
Haines plans to
continue with his investigation of the case until the mystery is solved.
TOWARD – DIRIGIR-SE
PAIRANDO. 2) ESTANDO SUSPENSO. 3) FLUTUANDO.
DELIBERATE HOAX – ENCENADO UMA
(I) Read this
information about inns in
North America and
in Japan. Then write two similarities and two differences between them.
Country inns have
in the United States and Canada in the last few years. Most
found in beautiful
often old houses or farmhouses with no more than five to fifteen rooms. They
offer the traveler a different travel experience. No two inns
alike, and no two rooms
alike in most inns. In many inns, the rooms do not have private bathrooms.
Instead, there is a bathroom on each floor for guests to use. Only a few inns
have televisions or telephones in the rooms. Most inns include breakfast with
the cost of a room, but other meals
in other countries. These inns have always been
with the Japanese, and now foreign tourists like to stay in them because they
usually in attractive locations in the countryside. Also, the inns
small and friendly places: Guests
greeted at the entry way, shown to a room, and immediately given a warm cup of
tea or a soft drink. Rooms do not include
baths; however, guests
invited to enjoy the communal baths - one for women only and the other just for
men. In the evening, an excellent meal (included in the price of the room) is
served in the guest's room. After dinner, the
remove the dishes and lay futons (which
folding mattresses) on the floor for sleeping. A whole family can stay together
in one room.
SAUDADOS. 2) CUMPRIMENTADOS 3) RECEBIDOS(ACOLHIDOS)
POURS OUT –
education is compulsory in the
United States, it
is not compulsory for all children to get their education at school. A number of
parents believe that they can provide a better education for their children at
home. Children who
educated at home
known as "home-schoolers." There
about 300,000 home-schoolers in the United States today. Some parents prefer
teaching their children at home because they do not believe that public schools
teach the correct religious values; others believe they can provide a better
educational experience for their children themselves. Interestingly, results
that home-schooled children tend to do better than average on national tests in
reading and math.
David Guterson is
an American writer. He and his wife teach their three children themselves.
Guterson says that his children learn very differently from children in a
school. Learning starts with the children's interests and questions. For
example, when there is heavy snowfall on a winter day, it may start a discussion
or reading about climate, snow removal equipment, Alaska,
bears, and winter tourism. Or a spring evening, when the family is watching the
stars, is a good
for setting up a telescope and asking questions about satellites, comets,
meteors, and the space program. At dinner, if the Brazilian rain forests
on the news, it could be a perfect
to get out the
and encyclopaedia. Then there might be two hours or more of eating, asking
questions, looking up answers, discovering how rain forests influence the
climate, what the "greenhouse effect" is, how deserts
formed, and how the
ice caps affect ocean levels.
schooling offers an experience that is often more interesting than
schools, critics point out that home-schoolers miss out on many important
things. The home-schooler is an outsider who, because he or she never attended
school, might be uncomfortable mixing with other people in adult life. Critics
also say that most parents
not well qualified to teach their children and may pass on their own narrow
views to their children. However, most parents don't have the
or desire to teach their children at home, so schools will continue to be where
most children get their
Each society has
its own beliefs, attitudes, customs, behaviors, and
habits. These give people a sense of who they
how they should behave, and what they should or should not do. These "rules"
reflect the "culture" of a country.
conscious of such rules when they meet people from different cultures. For
example, in some cultures, being on
can mean turning up several hours late for an appointment, even for a business
in others, 3 P.M. means
Also, the rules about when to eat vary from culture to culture. Many North
Americans and Europeans
used to having three mealtimes a day and organize their timetable around them.
In some countries, on the other hand, people often do not have strict rules like
this - people eat when they want to, and every family has its own timetable.
When people visit
or live in a country for the first
often surprised at the differences that exist between their own culture and the
culture in the other country. The most common way of comparing two cultures is
in terms of their differences - not their similarities. For some people,
travelling abroad is an exciting experience; for others though, cultural
differences make them feel uncomfortable, frightened, or even insecure. This is
known as "culture shock." Here
several things to do in order to avoid culture shock.
Learning how to
adapt to a
l Avoid quick
judgments; try to understand people in another culture from their own point of
2 Become more
aware of what is going on around you, and why.
3 Don't think of
your cultural habits as "right" and other people's as "wrong."
4 Be willing to
try new things and try for the first
often to have new experiences.
5 Try to
appreciate and understand other people's values.
6 Think about
your own culture and how it influences your attitudes and actions.
7 Avoid having
negative stereotypes about foreigners and their cultures.
respect, sincerity, interest, acceptance, and concern for things that
important to other people.
appreciating cultural differences can help people avoid misunderstandings,
develop friendships more easily, and feel more comfortable when travelling or
is a good place to visit if you like fantastic scenery. It has everything -
beautiful beaches, mountains, rivers, and forests. There
lots of things to do during the daytime. You can walk around the old town of San
Juan, explore the
in the mountains, or go swimming and scuba diving in the Caribbean or in the
Atlantic Ocean. In the evening, you can eat wonderful food and listen to
music. You can go to Puerto
of the year because the sun shines most of the
and the weather is usually great!
There is evidence
of superstitions among ancient civilizations. But this is not something of the
past. Superstition is part of our modern world, too.
Some very old
present among us today: a broken mirror, for example, means seven years of bad
luck. A black cat brings you bad luck when it crosses your way. Some people
never walk under a ladder because it also means bad luck. There is a very
curious belief among New Yorkers: 13 is a sign of bad luck and many buildings
have no thirteenth floor.
There is also a
place for good luck in superstition. Some charms and beliefs
because they bring good luck. A horseshoe, for example, or a four-leaf clover
good luck charms around the world. In Brazil, it is very difficult to find a
ticket of the
Lottery with a
13 - this is the lucky number. There is another curious belief in Brazil: three
kisses on the
of a single girl bring marriage.
certainly part of the past, present, and future life of man. For some people, it
is ignorance; for others, it is an important part of their lives.
second biggest city (after
may not seem like a very interesting city at first. It
as though it spreads out in every direction without any plan or organization,
and its streets and train stations
full of people in a hurry. Yet
Osaka is an
unusual city with a fascinating past and an exciting future.
think of Osaka as a series of neighborhoods centering on northern Osaka (Kita-ku)
and southern Osaka (Minami-ku). These two districts
very different from each other.
Kita-ku is the
of the city with skyscrapers, big
and new department stores. It's the modern side of
Here you can find the new City
as well as many other striking modern buildings. This is the Osaka that
like many other international cities.
Minami-ku is more
open and friendly. Here you find theaters, coffee shops,
boutiques, and restaurants. The most famous area in Minamiku is Dotombori. At
night, it seems that the entire city
here: fashionable office workers, tired and thirsty business people, university
with wild hairstyles. Music pours out of
and sidewalk hawkers sell everything from stuffed
to handmade jewellery. There
also quieter areas with beautiful temples and shrines where age-old ceremonies
take place throughout the year.
not as famous as Tokyo, it's more than a big, bustling city. It's also a warm,
beautiful place - inside and outside.
MUSIC POURS OUT OF
SHRINE - N 1
SIDEWALK HAWKERS SELL
EVERYTHING – E
Institution is an independent
devoted to public education, basic research, and national service in the arts,
science, and history. Its 12 museums and the National Zoo possess more than 70
million objects and specimens. About one percent of the
is on public
with the rest used for research.
21. COW THREAT
walking machines. They transform raw
( grass, hay, water, and feed ) into finished products ( milk, beef, leather,
and so on).
As any factory,
cows produce waste. Solid waste is eliminated through the rear end of these
"complex machines", and is used as fertilizer.
process in their four stomachs produces gas. These walking machines have two
chimneys: one in the front end, the other in the rear end. Gaseous emissions
through the front end chimney
called burps. Cows burp a lot. Every minute and a half. These burps release
methane gas. Methane is dangerous to the planet because it contributes to the
population is growing very fast. That means there
more people eating beef. Consequently, there is more cattle - more walking
machines - producing more methane gas.
This is the
problem, but very few people want to change their eating habits. What about you?
REAR – A
FUJITSU TALKS TELECOMMUNICATION
Phone" is a remarkable device. It combines the power of computer and the
technology of the telephone. Its electro-luminescent screen makes it possible to
talk and send handwritten messages at the same
creating a telephone that can send you a letter."
one computer maker. And a world leader in telecommunications technology.
1. "And a world
leader in telecommunications technology". This sentence means that:
A) Fujitsu has
the most advanced technology. D)
better than American ones.
produces computers and
telephones. E) Japanese can send
letters to world leaders.
technology is the best in the world.
2. Check a
synonym for the word remarkable.
A) simple. B)
complex. D) common. E) extraordinary.
3. Check the
wrong translation for the word device.
Young people all
the world have many things in common - their music, their language, their ideas.
However, there is nothing more
not a privilege of modern generations. In the 15th century, the sailors from
Genoa were the first to wear heavy cotton pants. They needed those durable and
practical cotton pants to work on their ships. Our modern term
from the Genoese sailors.
during the Gold
Levi Strauss arrived in California with a roll of heavy canvas under his arm. He
created the blue
and made a fortune.
Until World War
among farmers and
construction workers and people in the country and small towns of the United
In the forties,
some artists and young people wore blue
because they were practical, cheap, and kind of political protest. Then came the
fifties with Marlon
James Dean and motorcycle movies.
became a synonym of "bad" and schools banned them.
In the sixties,
not only in the
but all over the world. They were a symbol of youth. Today, however, they
no longer a privilege of a generation or a class: everybody wears
3. THE WATER WE DRINK
The water we
from reservoirs, lakes, or rivers. A large number of cities uses river water and
dumps it back into the river. Sometimes another city downstream uses the same
water. This water may be badly polluted with chemicals and pathogenic bacteria.
Many different chemical treatments
necessary to make it safe and palatable.
add some form of fluorine to their water. Fluorine in concentrations of 0.7 to
1.0 ppm ( parts
million ) can significantly reduce tooth decay in children.
communities usually obtain water from wells. Even they have problems because
sometimes the ground water is contaminated by nitrates. These nitrates come from
agricultural fertilizers and from the decomposition of organic waste.
What can we do?
We can fight for clear water and convince our neighbors to do the same. We can
demand an end to water pollution by industries and cities. And, finally, we must
know how to use the water of the earth because that is all the water we have.
A MYSTERIOUS CASE
Last night the
famous detective Alan Rockjaw was at home. He was reading the newspaper and
his pipe when the telephone rang. It was Inspector Tennison, the chief of
police. He was looking for help because he had a mysterious murder case to
The scene of the
was Joe's Restaurant. Rockjaw and Inspector Tennison drove quickly and saw a
dead man on the floor. His name was Frank Brady.
Joe, the owner of
the restaurant, tried to help Rockjaw, but he was too nervous. However, he gave
one important piece of information. "The murderer put his hand against the wall
when he shot Mr.", he said.
footsteps on the floor, but no signs of a holdup. There was money in the cash
register and used glasses and plates on the counter. No other useful clue.
on, Joe said, "I remember now. Archbald, Boris, Charlie, and David were here at
the moment of the murder. I was counting the money."
That was all.
The moon has
attracted man's attention since the beginning of civilization. Ancient Greeks
discovered the influence of the moon upon the tides. Poets have looked at the
moon with romantic eyes. Space scientists have not only studied it with their
telescopes, but have also sent astronauts there. However, they have not found
out all the answers to the mysteries of the moon. The origin of moon craters,
for example, is still obscure.
According to one
theory, thousands of meteors have crashed against the surface of the moon. The
impact of these crashes has formed the craters. They
pits and depressions on the
surface. They have many sizes and forms. Some scientists have tried to prove
this theory with plaster. They dropped objects into wet plaster, trying to
reproduced the formation of craters. Unfortunately, they have not been
disagree about this theory. For them, the craters have appeared because of
eruptions either of gas or
English physicist Robert Hook said, "The craters
the solidified residues of enormous bubbles".
This dispute has
not ended yet. It has been very difficult to prove theses theories. Scientists
have already progressed a lot, but poets can be glad - the moon is still a
romantic mystery to man.
Women have had a
secondary role in society! They have always stayed home doing housework. They
have been cooking, washing, and cleaning for centuries. Was that what they
really wanted? Nobody asked them.
The street has
always been men's territory. Men have been going out of the house day after day
to get money. This gave them economic independence and, in most cases, a feeling
But then came the
20th century and things have been changing gradually. One of the most
significant changes for women happened with the suffragettes*. They fought for
the women's right to
Then, step by step, women have been conquering new rights and engaging in new
movements. Nowadays we see more women competing with men in professional fields.
Some countries have women as presidents and prime ministers.
also many feminist leagues and clubs fighting the so-called "macho
as capable as men", "Men
less energetic than women", etc. Of course these
but they reveal deep changes there
fewer women doing housework. They
out in the street - as much as men - fighting for economic independence and for
a more decent
The women who fought to the feminine
The world has
changed a lot since the last decades of the 19th century: with the invention of
the automobile, places have become closer and man has traveled farther.
In the 20th
century, automobiles brought deep changes to the cities. Cars crowded the
streets and took the place of the old carriages.
The 50's and the
60's represented the greatest days of the automobile. But an oil crisis occurred
during the 70's. Gasoline became more expensive. Large automobile companies
worried about it and began to work on the "car of the future".
Cars in the
future will be more economical, lighter, and smaller than they
today. They will use different forms of energy: electric,
and many others. These new forms of energy will cause less pollution than
gasoline and will be cheaper.
8. THE BIG BANG
The big Bang
Model is a theory that tries to explain the evolution of the universe. According
to this theory, at some
between ten and twenty billion years ago, all matter and energy were compressed
into a small ball only a few kilometers in diameter. It was, in effect, one atom
that contained all the components of the entire universe in the form of pure
Then, at a moment
that astronomers refer to as T-0 (T equals
ball exploded, hurling energy into space. Expansion occurred. As the energy
cooled, most of it became matter in the form of protons, neutrons, and
particles combined to form hydrogen and helium, and continued to expand. This
expansion of matter formed galaxies with stars and planets.
9. THE DESERT LIVES
One-fifth of the
land surface of the earth is occupied by deserts, and holds 700 million people -
14% of the
population of the planet.
The world is now
aware of a phenomenon called desertification - the expansion of deserts. A
United Nations Conference on Desertification in 1977 recommended actions to
correct irrigation methods, crop rotation, reforestation and controlled grazing.
application of these actions may help to assure the future of these threatened
regions, but their fate really depends on the choices of man. (
He was a modern
magician. His astonishing notions of space and
changed man's perception of the universe forever. He fathered relativity and
introduced the atomic age with his formula E - mc2.* Yet his formidable
reputation never spoiled his simple humanity. He spoke courageously against
injustice. In his
years, dressed in loose clothes, his white hair untidy, he helped youngsters
with their geometry homework. He was an old man who still loved to sail, play
Mozart on the violin, and write poems. He died a little more than a quarter of
century ago, but there
few people who do not recognize the
or name of Albert Einstein.
of Einstein's theories was not the result of his
work. Others had worked before him and contributed to his formulations. One
example is Copernicus, from whom we learned about the heliocentric theory.
Kepler, who was a German physicist, provided a geometric description of the
movement of planets. Isaac
formulated the law of
DA RELATIVIDADE (ELE
nomad people who came from the Indian subcontinent. They started westward in the
year 1,000 AD Nowadays there
about 8 million gypsies all over the world.
gitanes, zingare, bohemians
some of the names we use to call this nomad people. Each of their groups has a
leader who is not hereditary. The most important member in the family, the
mother, has authority over her children and owns the family's properties. The
same principle applies to the tribe, which has the
mother - the "puri dai", guardian of the
code. A council of "earls" judges every gypsy who breaks the law. They punish
the most serious cases with banishment from the tribe.
centuries there has always been a variety of traditional occupations and crafts
among the gypsies. Music and dance, as well as road
fairs, and circus
part of their tradition. The men have been housekeepers and craftsmen; the
women, fortunetellers. Yet, they were forced to adapt their way of life to the
changes of their economic situation. Some have totally abandoned nomadism;
others have temporarily settled somewhere.
12. I HAVE A DREAM
I have a dream
That one day this nation will rise up
And live out the true meaning of its creed:
"We hold these truths to be self-evident,
That all men
2. I have a dream
That my four little children
Will one day live in a nation
Where they will not be judged
By the color of their skin
but by the content of their character.
3. This is our hope. ( Martin Luther King, Jr., from a speech in
Washington, D.C., in 1963.)
LIVE OUT (SOMETHING)–
different methods of anesthesia. One of them is inhalation. When a gas, such as
nitrous oxide, or a
such as ether is inhaled, it quickly reaches the air cells of the lung - the
alveoli. Depending on the solubility and concentration, a certain amount of the
anesthetic dissolves in the blood that
through the lung. Once in the bloodstream, the anesthetic is carried to the
Depending on the
amount of anesthetic, different stages of anesthesia can be produced: the first
stage, analgesia, is an absence of the sense of pain; the second is excitement,
both physical and
the third stage, surgical, brings a complete loss of consciousness and muscle
14. WATCH YOUR BODY
diseases acquired? Some
caused by direct and visible injuries to the body. Others ( 70%, some physicians
psychosomatic. Other diseases
caused by contagion.
The first type,
caused by direct injuries to the body, can be avoided in part: hygiene and
carefulness may prevent the most evident causes. Psychosomatic diseases
those induced into our body by emotional states; so, if we keep our emotional
balance, we can prevent many of them. Finally, contagious diseases
a matter of information and intelligence. The most important contagious disease
Everyone know the ways of contagion, then it is up to each one to avoid it.
15. GOD'S HEAVEN
Of course you
expect to go to Heaven when you die. We all do. As a matter of fact, everyone
hopes to go to Heaven and meet the other members of the family who have passed
Take my advice:
make a reservation. Heaven is becoming very crowded, and it is doubtful whether
you can get it.
People go to
Heaven to meet their mother, and father, and relatives, but if we take
twenty-five years as a generation, we will find that there have been
seventy-nine generations since the
of Christ. And if we count only your parents, their parents, their parents'
parents, and so on, you will have to meet 302,231,454,903,657,293,676,543
different relatives. So, it's going to be difficult to find your dear Mom and
Our little world
would not hold that stupendous number.
If that number of
people were on earth, they would make a pile of 113,236
high over the earth's surface. If you climbed at 8
a day you would reach your grandfather about thirty-nine years
Of course you can
down faster and you should reach your place back about fifty years after you
That is two
generation. Then, by the
back to your place, your own children will be looking for you. You really
couldn't expect anybody to hold your place for you for fifty years, so you
going to have a hell of a
People used to
think Heaven was infinite, but
records its limits in Bible. He says that Heaven is about 15
long in each dimension. Evidently, Heaven was filled up several hundred years
ago - or about the
Columbus was discovering America.
What to do?
is no way out. You must die sometime, and since it is so evident that you cannot
go to Heaven, where should you go? ... Dare say it!
16. MAYA BELIEFS
The Mayas, in
America believed that 13 heavens were arranged in layers above the earth. The
earth was located on the back of a huge crocodile that floated on the ocean.
Nine subterranean worlds existed under the earth, also arranged in layers.
Thirteen gods presided over the heavens; nine gods ruled the underworlds.
According to the
Lacandone Indians, the sun spends the night in an underworld, where his brother
Usukunkyum gives him food and protection against the hostile Kisin, the
reflects the strong dualistic tendency of Maya thinking, that life is struggle
between good and evil.
MAYA BELIEFS – AS
- N 1 ESCORREGÃO,
// VT+VI (IMP. SLID, P. P. SLID
HE LETS THINGS
HE SLID INTO THE HABIT
17. A GREEN EARTH OR A
There may still
For millions of
rainforests of South East Asia, South America, and Africa have been the earth's
chemical laboratories, botanic gardens and zoos.
destroying them at such a rate that within 25 years only fragments will remain
of the vast forests of Malaysia and Indonesia.
When the trees
felled, soil erosion begins and within a few years, the whole area that was once
forest becomes wasteland.
is happening through ignorance, shortsightedness and ever increasing consumer
demand. But it can be stopped if enough of us
How can you help?
Join the world Wildlife Fund now. We need you voice and you financial support.
WWF - FOR WOLD
Every human group
tries to give a supernatural explanation for its existence. Every people creates
concepts of entities responsible for everything that exists. The organization of
these concepts is called mythology. Since mythological explanations
supernatural, the basis of mythology is faith.
for the creation of man
interesting. According to Greek mythology the Titans were the first inhabitants
of the universe. One of the Titans, by the name of Prometheus, took some clay
from the ground and mixed it with his
After working with passion and dedication, he modeled a statue which looked like
the gods. He was so proud of his work that he decided to make a crowd of
statues, and so he did.
finished making that large number of statues he looked at them and realized that
they were dumb and still. They had no life. So, he gave some
features to the statues - the courage of the lion, the strength of the bull, the
smartness of the fox, the friendship of the dog, and so on.
something was still missing in these creatures. It was Athena, the goddess of
wisdom, who helped Prometheus. She took a cup of the divine nectar and gave it
to the statues. When they drank it, a new
sparkled in their eyes. They were able to reason and think.
SPARKLED - BRILHOU. 2)
inside a microorganism that will reproduce itself and obtain a large number of
copies of that
During the 70's,
scientists working in the area of creating new
removed one of the nuclei of a recently-fertilized egg so that the resulting
embryo would carry the genetic features of only one of the parents. This gave
offspring totally identical to the father or the mother.
engineering has raised much
throughout the world. For the distant future, one can think of totally
each characteristic being fabricated.
have been made throughout history to explain the similarity between parents and
for instance, that the substances responsible for heredity came from the blood
of both parents and were mixed together in the child. This idea can be found in
expressions like "royal blood" or "bloodline". Another theory suggested the
existence of a miniature copy of the father in his reproductive cells. But we
know, today, that heredity is carried by the
chromosome sectors transmitted from parents to children.
The basic laws of
studied by genetics. These laws were stated by Augustinian monk Gregor Jonathan
Mendel (1822-1884) in a monastery in the city of Brunn, Austria (now a Czech
Mendel used peas
in his experiments because they could be easily observed. He cross-pollinated
peas with wrinkled peas. As a result, two thirds of the peas had pods containing
and wrinkled peas. Mendel's experiment demonstrated that the gametes (ovule and
pollen grain in plants, egg cells and spermatozoa in
) contain some factors (
responsible for the appearance of characters in the organism. When fertilization
carried by the male
combined with those carried by the female. The new plant inherits half of its
from each parent.
CROSS-POLLINATED – POLINIZADAS
/ PODS – N 1
(DE LEGUMINOSA). 2
// VI 1
WRINKLED – RUGOSAS
It seems - nobody
is sure of anything nowadays - that yawning was once seen as a
of evil spirits to enter the body while the soul slipped out. So, we began
covering the mouth to frustrate the to-and-fro, but that hasn't put a lid on
questions such as: Who yawns?
fish yawn on switching from one activity to another, chickens stand on tiptoe,
their wings - and yawn. With its head out of the sand, the South African ostrich
has been caught yawning. Dogs yawn like mad when they become aggressive, unless
- and this goes for cats and apes, too - they
signaling peaceful coexistence.
in Paris, studied yawning with radiographs made every half second. He detected
dilation of pharynx, larynx, nostrils, and bronchial tubes;
of the eyebrows; lowering of the diaphragm; retreat of the tongue; a sight
racing of the heart; increased flow of the blood to the brain; rhythmic
motions of the mandible; closure of the eyes; occasional
as well as occasional dislocation of the jaw.
CHICKENS STAND ON TIPTOE –
PUT A LID ON –
SWITCHING – MUDANDO
TO-AND-FRO – MOVER-SE DE
From smutty words
to filthy pictures, everyone’s got an opinion on porn. And deep down inside,
everyone likes some form of it. You can disagree till your
turns blue, however the porn industry is a money making lucrative world, and we
the reason why. No matter what you
like, someone out there is turned onto your naked (or clothed) flesh, whether
you like it or not. And that’s the beauty of porn. It brings a little smile to a
Women in the
industry, weather they
good at it or not, get paid. In
a strip dancer can make an average way above of $700.00 a week working only 35
hours. If a woman decides to take it a step further and models ‘nude’, she can
make a larger amount of money in less
This type of pornography surely doesn’t cause any problems for women. Just
has also helped the
industry profit by bringing
delight with one click of a
in the privacy of your own home. The
further facilitates your fantasies by allowing payment in the old fashion check
form, or credit card and automatically deducting from your bank account. Again,
this is another fact that proves porn helps bring in money for women and safely.
A female does not have to be in contact with a person if she is having cyber
sex, or selling nude photos.
Of course, with
the jubilation of effortless access in porn industry, there
some wicked habits easily obtained on the
This type of hideousness is child pornography and the hidden camera. Even though
in some countries it is perfectly
for a person under 18 to be married and/or to have children, nothing is more
disgusting then using a child’s innocence for means of pleasure. Not as
horrifying, though equally disturbing the hidden camera has been a huge success
on the web too. If a person wants to be in a porn flick then that person will
elect to be in one, and until then it is an outrage that some companies make
of other peoples bodies without their permission. In these two instances, I
agree that pornography is beyond nauseating and uncalled-for.
the Founder of Women against Pornography wrote an essay "Let’s Put Pornography
Back in the
She rambles on how "…the feminist objection to pornography is based on our
belief that pornography represents hatred of women…. dehumanizes the female body
for the purpose of erotic stimulation and pleasure." From my understanding,
porn’s main purpose is to bring some type of stimulation and pleasure, and Susan
clearly misunderstands the primary objective of porn. Nor does porn dehumanize
the female body. A typical pornographic video consists of
sex and 3 common positions; missionary, women on
and doggy style. None of these positions or acts causes harms to a woman’s body.
Susan and her
long-winded essay, she also stated that the Supreme Court had neglected to
define ‘hard-core’. This neglect is a smart move on the Supreme Courts side.
What may be hard-core to one person may not be to another. She obviously regards
acts on a person is hard-core and her stating the Supreme Courts act in not
defining hard-core being faulty
her to be closed minded and somewhat uneducated.
In her essay,
Susan even admitted to being embarrassed of her own body when she sees another
person naked. Maybe this is the root of her problems with pornography. Susan’s
own true insecurities with herself cause her to feel
when others create pleasure for the public to enjoy in privacy.
Susan brings up
the subject of rape many
in her essay blaming porn on the reasons of why women
raped. She thinks porn brands a women as meat and to sum it up, causes a man to
uncontrollably have his way with a women by forcing her to have sex. Even though
rape is forced sex, it has nothing to do with sex. It has to do with over
powering someone else.
solution of "Getting the stuff out of our sight" can be obtained without
infringing another adult person’s right to view and admire the
satisfactions of pornography. No one forces a person to go into an adult store
and purchase porn. If you don’t like it, don’t buy it.
– Sexually Oriented Business – Strip
modeling studios, pornographic videos,
and books. Anything having to do with sex or the act of.
Source – Susan
Brownmiller/Let’s Put Pornography Back in the
‘Monique’ and ‘Chloe’ 2 dancer friends.
- n 1
// vt 1
all of the best brands
brand of Cain
de Caim. that day is branded on my memory
está gravado na
a produt of good brand
// -ily adv
he is filthy rich
- n 1
salpico. 4 Coloq.
// vt+vi 1
2 bater-se de
e repetidamente. the
flicked wet towels at each other
úmidas. to flick away /
a flick through the pages
to flick through
uma olhada (livros,
// hideously adv
- n horribilidade,
- adj 1 dotado de
// long-windedly adv 1
- n 1
// vt 1
- n 1
// vt 1
- n a
// vi 1
- adj 1
// -ily adv
- adj 1 indesejado. 2
describes a criticism,
insult, remark or action that is unfair,
or hurtful and therefore considered to be unnecessary:
an uncalled-for remark. Ex: There's no need to make personal
remarks - that was
- adj 1
starting my sophomore year in college.... I first knew I had a learning
disability when I was in first
A learning disability is like any other disability, but in this case it's the
learning process that is disturbed. There is something that's stopping
from learning in the average way. I know it's not that I can't learn. I can, but
I learn differently and it's often much harder for
This in turn means that I have difficulty with reading and spelling, and also
with remembering what I hear".
Like Cory, almost
20% of children, of the
school population, suffer from different types of learning
an even larger number of students that go undetected with L.D.s. Most of these,
male. This might explain the unbelievable number of famous
that have succeeded in their professional careers, while suffering from their
Winston Churchill, Albert Einstein, da Vinci, Beethoven, and
only a few of the well known
who have dealt with a learning disability. These famous
had problems in the areas in spelling, grammar, and math. Students without
problems like these, but these areas become increasingly difficult when you have
trouble interrupting such everyday subjects. Since a majority of these men were
alive before a
when learning disabilities were a documented problem, most of them flunked out
of school or had to repeat
Like a building
entrances, school is a
hurdle for a student with a L.D.. School can also bring on some
problems that go along with a learning disability. Words like stupid and retard
thrown around groups of classmates, but, to a special student, these words can
be damaging and very hurtful. Kids need to be taught that words like these need
to be ignored. This is especially true in L.D. children. What most L.D. students
and their parents don't know about themselves is that most L.D. students have
average or above average intelligence. There is a blockade that is blocking that
In the same area
acceptance, there is the problem of discrimination, because most people think
that a disability is more
like being in a wheelchair. People think that these students will be a strain on
Fellow students and teachers sometime think that L.D. students
not paying attention or hyperactive, think that they
slow, and think that they get special attention. Children often feel frustrated
and embarrassed and this makes a student feel like giving up. Giving up is an
easy thing to do, but for a L.D. student giving up is made easier when a student
feel broken hearted because their children feel worthless. Parents feel that it
is their fault that their child has this problem. In some instances, it is
thought that this
can be passed from the parents, but it can also be the result of an early
childhood illness. It is really uncertain what really causes a learning
disability. What some people do not understand is that a learning disability can
not be fixed. Like everything else in life, it is something that you learn to
deal with and it is the L.D. teacher's job to teach this lesson.
An L.D. teacher
must have a deep understanding of what it takes for a student to grasp a
concept. Mainstreaming is one of the most practiced types of educating disabled
kids. This means that the students spend most of their day in
and only a few hours in a special education
needed to succeed in the
taught during this
can be much like a strategy
to figure out of that specific student's way of learning best.
disability teachers spend much of their
trying to help their students adapt to what
called the "normal"
What would it be like if a "normal"
student tried to learn like a L.D. student does?
1. Write your
name on a piece of paper, using your best handwriting. Now write it again, but
move your left foot on the floor in a counter-clockwise as you write. Compare
2. Try reading
- n 1 bloqueio. 2
to raise the blockade
o bloqueio. to run the blockade
- n 1
// vt+vi 1
a fine figure of a man
to lose one's figure
to figure in
de. what a figure you
faz! a famous figure in history
he cuts a sorry figure
into seven figures
what's the figure
to keep one's figure conservar-se
figure of speech
to figure on Am. Coloq.
to figure as
afigurar-se. he figures as the villain
to figure out
figure to yourself imagine
- n Am. Coloq.
// vt+vi 1
esquivar-se, furtar-se. 5 Am. Coloq. Teat.
to flunk out Coloq.
- n Esp. 1
to be handicapped with
- n 1 Esp.
// vt+vi 1
- n 1 Am.
- n 1
6 procedimento. 7 (também
// vt+vi 1
7 esforçar-se, exceder-se. 8
the cord could not stand the strain a
I have a strain in my hand destronquei
in this strain desta
he was buried to the strains of his favourite song
foi sepultado ao
she is a strain on my nerves
he strained the child to his heart
he strained a point
excedeu-se. to strain at esforçar-se
- n 1
there is a strain of madness in her
If you're an
user, you know who you
among all of us in society, although many may choose to not acknowledge that
they frequently use the
too. As I sit here and
across the street, I see a man in front of his own computer; the screen glowing
against the window behind him. He does not use his personal computer for work,
he is a farmer. He has become what is known as an "Internet
begins innocently. At the start, you
not even aware of the possibilities that may form from your excessive computer
use. You begin to take an avid interest in e-mailing with your friends and
family. Once the novelty of keeping in touch with your colleagues wears
and researching starts to bore you, you may possibly expand your computer usage
to chatting. Yes, chatting. It is something that is becoming more acceptable in
our lives, but it is still looked down upon by many
Chatting through the
involves choosing an appropriate nickname for yourself (IE: Fisherman), and then
finding a room where you feel compelled to spend
in. Once you've entered the room, other fellow chatters may say, "Hello...a/s/l
And so begins the
addiction. Once you become involved in
people online, it is difficult to break such a habit. You may even make a daily
habit of it. People have been found to carry out exactly the same
not only across the nation, but across the globe. In any one room, you may come
across people from five different countries of the world. Granted, not everyone
who stays online for hours on end
enveloped in chatting, but it is more often then not, the cause for
Addiction Disorder (IAD).
The prevalence of
Addiction Disorder has been increasing in number. Hence a support
group, among many, The
Addiction Support Group (IASG), has been developed. IAD, a "maladaptive" pattern
use, is leading to impairment and/or distress caused by three (or more) of the
following, at any
in a period of one year: "A) A need for markedly increased amounts of
to achieve satisfaction, B) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the
same amount of
C) Reduction in
use which has been prolonged.
Addiction Disorder include: "A) Psychomotor agitation, B) anxiety, C) obsessive
thinking about what is happening on
D) fantasies or dreams about
E) voluntary or involuntary typing movements of the fingers." These symptoms
begin to cause conflict in "social,
occupational, or another important area of functioning." People who become
addicted, use the
to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms, which
to those brought on by the halt of drug use. The disorder is recognized by the
"persistent desire" or "unsuccessful efforts" to minimize the
June 14, 1998,
news reported that an "Internet
Cincinnati woman was arrested for neglecting her three young children. The woman
reportedly spent 12 hours straight online, while her hungry kids were locked
away in a room so she could be online without interruption. (Associated Press)
is rapidly becoming an addictive source to a lot of its users. Use of the
include: students, housewives, and business professionals. Some of these users
spend a minimum of thirty-eight hours
week on the "net"; hence, losing touch with reality and reeking havoc on their
studies, family lives, and even their careers. Based on level of addiction,
three groups of
addicts: A) the "I'm-not-addicted-users", B) the
"I-only-use-it-when-I-have-to-users", and C) the "Internet
The "I'm not
those who try to convince themselves that they
not addicted to the
This group includes college students who don't go online during the day to prove
to fellow classmates that they can do without getting online; only, to stay up
all night in a
room. College students
not the only people who fit in this category though. In
addicts but portray themselves otherwise in the presence of people. The "I only
use it when I have to users",
those who make convenient excuses to go online. And finally, the "Internet
unlike the addicts in the previous two groups, these users neither
sneak online nor make excuses to get online. They put their lives
on hold while engrossed with their computer usage.
People who seem
addicted to the
signs of psychiatric disorders such as, manic-depression. Psychiatrist Nathan
Shapira of the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, studied 14 people
who had spent so much
online, that they were facing problems at home, job loss, and flunking out of
school. Nine of the 14 people studied were found to have manic-depression at the
of the interview; half of the users had anxiety disorder such as "social
phobia"; three suffered from eating disorders; four had uncontrollable burst of
anger; and eight had abused alcohol or drugs at some
in their life. (Associated Press)
People with no
sign of psychiatric trouble have gotten hooked on the
too. Yes, it is avoidable, but still many people fall into the addictive track,
just as if it were
drinking, or any other
The addiction can attack anyone, of any age. Today's youth live with the
as a daily part of their lives. Chatting after school and on the weekends is
listed among the
activities like sporting events and shopping. Help is available, but don't get
yourself tangled into the addiction. It's hard to break once you've got yourself
wound into the habit. Good luck fellow
- vt 1
the book engrossed my attention o
// vi 1
with). he glowed with indignation
to cry havoc 1
to make havoc of
junkie – viciado
down upon - 1
nov.el.ty - n 1
- n 1
// vt+vi 1
e desagradável. 2
to reek of
a. to reek with
- n 1
// vt+vi 1
to go on the sneak Gír.
to sneak about
to sneak away,
safar-se, evadir-se. to sneak out of s. th.
- 1 gastar-se, desgastar-se. 2
- n 1
// vt 1
5 (imp. e p. p. wound
- n 1
tortuosidade, sinuosidade. 3
// vt+vi (imp. e p. p. wound) 1
a. 12 insinuar-se. 13
Why would our
government try to hurt kids? Well, kids
being hurt right now. You see, in America punishment, rather than
rehabilitation is being emphasized for
This way of thinking must stop with the addition of rehabilitation and
prevention programs for juvenile offenders.
States vary in
definition of a juvenile. In
for example, a juvenile is defined as any person below the age of 17. Using each
definition, the FBI reported that 62% of
arrested in 1992 were referred to juvenile courts, 5% to a criminal or adult
court, 2% to a welfare agency, and 1% to another police agency. The kids sent to
adult prisons were eight
as likely to commit suicide. It has also been evident that those kids
incarcerated with adults
also more likely to become repeat offenders.
pending in congress now is debating several issues. Among them
weather to have children as young as 13 be prosecuted and sentenced as adults
give prosecutors the discretion to transfer a juvenile to an adult court in
contact and in some cases be housed with adults.
I take an
opposing point of view with that of congress. If a 13 year old is imprisoned,
how can he become a functional member of society upon his release? How will he
create a positive lifestyle for himself? The
question is: How can he turn in any direction other than that of
He simple will not be able to. If a child is sent to a prison to stay in a cell
for hours at a
the only life he will know is the life he came from, not the life that could be
his. Also, a prosecutor shouldn't have the privilege to decide what court a kid
is placed in. A prosecutor has a built in bias; the decision should be left to a
judge who would
in the best interest of the convicted person. The statistics prove that housing
children with adults can only have a disastrous outcome for the juvenile.
The goal of
juvenile detention should be to rehabilitate and develop the
Appropriate educational skills need to be taught. Children need to be put in
touch with their feeling through counseling. Juvenile offenders need to be
exposed to role models from within their community and without. A sense of hope
should be instilled so that the young offender is not resigned to
the fate of a "second class citizen."
than efforts to rehabilitate the offender would be programs to prevent the
juvenile from committing
to begin with. Keyshawn Johnson, a wide receiver for the NFL's New York Jets,
recently said "People hate to say it, but what you
around is what you're going to be. At 13 years old and you're around
you're going to be a criminal." For this reason, prevention efforts must involve
the entire community, including schools, faith-based organizations, business,
law enforcement and most importantly, the parents. If parents
unable to properly educate their kids, then programs need to be developed to
train the parents.
and girls clubs basketball leagues, The Jessie White Tumblers, adult mentoring,
and student exchanges
all positive prevention programs that need to be continued and further promoted.
It is imperative
a tone and send the message that
who come in contact with the law
entitled to protections not available to adults. Rehabilitation, not long term
imprisonment, should be the goal, and prevention now is preferable to punishment
were arrested in 1992. It is in the best interest of America to see that these
2.3 million do not become adult offenders.
bi.as - n 1
// adv obliquamente,
– bias -
estimado e o
(random sample). Esta tendenciosidade é
tendem a cancelar-se mutuamente. 2. Tendenciosidade,
parcialidade. (107) (108) (231) (244)
- n 1
// vt+vi 1
I took counsel with him troquei
he asked counsel of
to be the counsel in a case
he was counselled deixou-se
na Escócia é chamado de (advocate). (244)
nublados instilavam na
<uma desconfiança instilava-se
- in.still vt
Ex.: instilou várias
- vt+vi 1 resignar-se,
2 conformar-se, submeter-se. 3 demitir-se. 4
to resign from office demitir-se de
to resign to the will of God submeter-se à
– estabeleça uma
wel.fare - n 1
- welfare -
MUST PROVIDE YOUNG PEOPLE WITH ADEQUATE SEX EDUCATION BECAUSE IGNORANCE CAN BE
The largest gulf
of understanding still remains between the parents and the youth especially in
the area of sexuality. Sex is a
part of life, and when questions arise, they can be discussed in a matured way
without condoning certain behavior. Relying to that, we realize that sex
education is important to be inserted in a person's life. Therefore, sex
education in high schools is very necessary for youngsters to acquire
information, form attitudes, beliefs and values about identity, relationships
and intimacy. Sex education also encompasses
development, affection, body image and gender
In other words, it is about learning how we grow, reproduce and change over the
years. It also includes a positive view of sex and the safety involved on
sexuality. Regarding to the importance of sex education, I want to state my
stand here that I strongly agree that "High schools must provide young people
with adequate sex education because ignorance can be harmful".
Sex education in
high schools helps young people to be more prepared for life changes such as
puberty, menopause and aging. Sex education can develop skills and self esteem
to help students enter adolescence. It helps them in knowing that the sudden few
For example, girls would not get shocked, panic and afraid at their first
menstruation once they already had the knowledge about it.
Young people can
also learn to appreciate and recognize their own sex: bodies just as good,
beautiful and special as other God's perfect creations. Moreover, it delivers
confidence on them to value themselves and others. Sex education helps them
understand the place of sexuality in human life and loving other people. They
will learn to enjoy their sexuality, behave responsibly within their
and personal relationships.
usually very curious to know all new things that came up to them especially
abstract things such as sex. Despite that, sex education plays a
role in addressing concerns and correcting the misunderstandings that the
youngsters may have gained from sources such as the media and their peers. In
addition, they will learn to make decisions that respect themselves and others
by taking account the possible consequences. For instance, youngsters will be
more matured, responsible and
ills can also be reduced. Furthermore, research had shown that children that
subjected to sex education
more apparent to practice safer sex.
Some people might
say that sex education could influence premarital marriage, leading to the
increment of unwanted pregnancies. Conversely, a survey done in 1987 had shown
that girls who were not educated about menstruation and
activity were much more likely to become pregnant during their teen years. There
was also a statement from the Government Review of National and International
Research in London that identified high school sex education as being effective
in reducing teenage pregnancies. Based on the facts given, it clearly proves
that sex education does not
ills such as unwanted pregnancies. However, a slight problem might arise since
sex education might be a new subject or program in most high schools. Therefore,
the program should be planned carefully in conjunction with those who will
participate and the parents. The program instructors also ought to receive
and equipped with the required skills and knowledge to support the personal and
development of young people through sex education.
In conclusion, we
must realize the importance of sex education being taught in high schools to
students. This is to ensure the students that
our future generations will be well prepared to stand up against all the
unexpected obstacles in their future. After all, "Education does
not hurt, but ignorant does".
- age.ing n envelhecimento, maduração (também
- n 1
The world has
gone through a revolution and it has changed a lot. We have cut the death rates
around the world with modern medicine and new farming methods. For example, we
sprayed to destroy
in Sri Lanka in the 1950s. In one year, the average life of everyone in Sri
Lanka was extended by eight years because the number of people dying from
malaria suddenly declined.
This was a great
human achievement. But we cut the death rate without cutting the birth rate. Now
population is soaring. There were about one billion people
in the world when the Statue of Liberty was built. There
more than 6 billion today. World population is growing at an enormous rate. The
world is going to add a billion people in the next eleven years, that's 300,000
say there will be at least 2.2 billion more people
in the world in the next twenty years.
understand what these numbers mean for the
at the question of jobs. The International
organization projects a twenty-year increase of 700 to 800 million people who
will be seeking jobs.
percent of the world's population growth takes place in the
More than a billion people today
paid about 250 dollars a year, which is less than the average American earns in
a week. And growing numbers of these poorly paid Third World citizens want to
come to the
In the 1970s, all
other countries that accept immigrants started controlling the number of people
they would allow into their countries. The
United States did
not. This means that the huge numbers of immigrants who
turned down elsewhere will turn to the United States. The number of immigrants
is staggering. The human suffering they represent is a nightmare.
population is now 520 million people. It will be 800 million in the year 2025.
Mexico's population has tripled since the Second World War. One third of the
population of Mexico is under ten years of age, as a result, in just ten years,
Mexico's unemployment rate will increase 30 percent, as these children become
young adults, in search of work. There were in 1990 an estimated four million
illegal aliens in the United States, and about 55 percent of them were from
to the United States. Human population has always moved, like waves, to fresh
lands. But for the first
in human history, there
no fresh lands, no new continents. We will have to think and decide with great
care what our policy should be toward immigration. At this point in history,
American immigration policies
in a mess.
totally out of control. Our border
arrests 4000 illegal immigrants
day, or 1.6 million
year, and Two illegal immigrants get in for every one caught. And those caught
just try again!
More than 1
entering the U.S. legally every year. From 1991 through 2000, 11.6 million of
these newcomers arrived-the highest number in any 10-year period since 1910. A
record 2.3 million were granted permanent residence in 2000. Because present law
stresses family unification, these arrivals can bring over their spouses,
and daughters: some 4.7 million
now in line to come in. Once here, they can bring in their direct relatives. As
a result, there exists no visible limit to the number of
entries. Until a few years ago, immigrants seeking asylum were rare. In 1975, a
of 200 applications were received in the U.S. Suddenly, asylum is the plea of
choice in the U.S., and around the world, often as a cover for economic
migration. U.S. applications were up to 137,000 last year, and the backlog
400,000 cases. Under the present asylum rules, practically anyone who declares
that he or she is fleeing political oppression has a good
to enter the U.S. Chinese
almost always admitted, for example, if they claim that China's birth-control
policies have limited the number of children they can have. Right now, once
aliens enter the U.S., it is almost impossible to deport them, even if they have
no valid documents. Thousands of those who enter illegally request asylum only
caught. The review process can take 10 years or more, and applicants often
simply disappear while it is under way. Asylum cases
piling up faster than they can be cleared, with the Immigration and
Naturalization Service falling farther behind every year. At her confirmation
hearings at the end of September, Doris Meissner, the president's nominee as
commissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Services, conceded, ''The
asylum system is broken, and we need to fix it.''
and illegal immigrants, 50 percent of all U.S. population growth
from immigration. While Americans try to have smaller families, immigration
threatens our nation. If immigration rates continue to be this high, more than
seventy million people will be added to the United States population in just
fifty years, with no end in sight. We
taking in more people than all of the rest of the world combined. As have all
the other countries of the world,
needs to control its borders. As every house needs a door, so every country
needs a border. And yet, our borders
full of holes. We have clearly lost control over our future. Our children will
pay the price of uncontrolled immigration.
United States is
no longer an empty continent. In 1886, when the Statue of Liberty was built,
there were 58 million people in the United States. In 1984 there were 240
million people, that's four
population in less then a century The U.S. cannot and should not be the home of
last resort for all the world s poor, huddled masses. We
not doing a good job with our own poor, as we see more people without jobs.
immigration use many arguments to support their side. Let's
at a few of these arguments: Illegal immigrants take jobs no Americans want. The
fact is that the average illegal immigrant arrested in
made more than seven dollars an hour. Many were making over 135 dollars
day. Denver identified 57 illegal aliens making 135 dollars
day as roofers, while 582 people were registered in their employment services
who would have loved those jobs. The average illegal immigrant arrested in
Chicago makes $9.5 an hour. More than thirty million American workers make less
than that. A common belief is that aliens
many of the least desirable jobs. However, most
agree that in today's economy, there is no shortage of Americans competing for
many of these same jobs. Actually, many Americans already work in these
low-paying jobs. For example: the poor black woman, who works as a seamstress,
Her boss asked her to train a new employee, an illegal immigrant. As soon as she
she was fired. Her position, of course, went to the illegal immigrant, who was
willing to work for less pay, and under deplorable working conditions. This is
one example of how illegal workers depress wages, and slow, stall or prevent
unionization or improvements to working conditions.
cited by supporters of immigration is that illegal immigrants work hard, pay
taxes, and do not go on welfare. The sad truth is that these folks seem to learn
the ropes of the welfare system with incredible speed.
immigrants apply for and receive benefits from the government that citizens
need. According to Donald L. Huddle, an economist at
and illegal immigrants cost the nation a net 57 billion dollars in 2000. The
Huddle study also found that in 2000, more than 2,7 million Americans were
displaced from their jobs by illegal immigrants. This resulted in an additional
158 billion dollars in public assistance.
alone, they cost more than 24,3 billion dollars a year. California currently has
an estimated 400,000 illegal immigrants now attending
0-12. This will costs the
tax payers an estimated 2 billion dollars. This is 10 percent of the students
currently enrolled in our elementary schools today!
has 49.8 percent of the countries illegal aliens, therefore, California pays
multiple costs for its leaky borders.
care for illegal immigrants costs
payers 400 million dollars annually. Illegals drain about two billion dollars a
year for incarceration, schooling and Medicaid from the budgets of such
destination states as Texas, Florida and California. For California alone, a
2000 study by the California Legislature estimates criminal justice costs
involving illegal immigrants to be 520 million dollars to the state, with an
additional 152 million dollars to
or county government. This is a
cost of 672 million dollars, paid by the California tax payer, each and every
did a study showing that it paid 89 million dollars in unemployment benefits to
illegal immigrants in one year, despite a law that was supposed to stop illegal
immigrants from getting unemployment benefits. Los Angeles estimates that it
spends 363 million dollars in
services on illegal immigrants each year. Every person added to our population
resources and contributes to the destruction of our environment.
Pulitzer-Prize-winning study, the Des Moines Register found that for every
person added to our population, 1.5
of the richest farm land goes out of production to make way for new houses,
roads, and shopping centers. If this continues, the United States will stop
shipping food to other countries shortly after the year 2010. How can the United
States feed the hungry people of the world? The national majority now says it
cutting back on
poll determined last week that 77 percent of those surveyed felt the government
was not doing enough to keep out illegal immigrants. For years now, the battle
has raged between the
supposed to police the borders and the states who pay the price if they fail.
In an attempt to
reduce illegal immigration,
Senator Harry Reid, has introduced a bill that would establish an annual limit
of 400,000 newcomers, including ''immediate relatives,'' and a national
identification card. Congress passed legislation in 1986 that stipulates fines
and other penalties for employers who knowingly hire illegal aliens. The bill
includes provisions to grant amnesty to illegal aliens who were in the United
and to aid farmers who have relied on illegal aliens to harvest their crops.
benefit from the rising tide of illegal immigration? Businesses that can profit
from employing illegals at low wages do. And many illegals
here than in their own countries. But many others
exploited by dishonest employers and
treated like slaves. These immigrants
denied the rights and privileges we want every person in the United States to
In closing, we
must all realize this issue will not go away. Other generations of Americans
made great sacrifices so that we today can enjoy the freedom, the quality of
life, and the
that we have. When I think of what uncontrolled immigration will do to the
dreams of my parents and grandparents, what it will mean to the future of my
children, I realize that we will find a way to control immigration.
Because we must.
While many people
believe there should be more gun control and the possibility of banning guns all
together, I believe the gun control laws should not be changed. Although there
many reasons that may persuade people to choose to ban guns, I believe that
several other reasons that
to all the tragedies with guns in America. Banning guns is not an answer the gun
problem in America, there
a few other things that could be done to stop gun violence. In this essay I will
tell about why I believe gun control laws should not be changed.
After the many
shootings in schools over the past two years, many people believe guns should be
made illegal for civilians to
or purchase guns. While this may make it difficult for minors, drug addicts, and
deficiencies to get hold on a gun, The Constitution allows all citizens to
possess arms to defend themselves, their families', and their property. However
if guns were made illegal, there would still be people who would smuggle guns.
If a burglar were to smuggle a gun in to someone's home, that man or woman
should be allowed to
a gun to defend themselves.
And if guns were
illegal, mostly only people who do not abide the law would smuggle them, leaving
all the law-abiding citizens unarmed and more prone to attack with a gun.
suggest making a longer waiting-period and deeper
check to purchase a gun would reduce the amount of violence with guns. While
once again that would make it more difficult for minors, drug addicts, and
deficiencies to obtain a gun, it would not prevent many people who wish to have
a gun from getting one. Also, many people obtain guns from stealing it from
another person, or buying it
a citizen who is unknowledgable or uncaring for the law, or the temperament of
the buyer. Besides, if a person who is of age, and has a clear record wishes to
buy a gun to be violent with it, there is no way of preventing him or her.
believes strengthening the gun control laws would reduce gun violence is
correct. However, if someone wants to kill someone, not having a gun is
unfortunately not going to stop him or her. If a gun is not accessible, a person
who wishes to kill someone will use another weapon that is accessible, such as a
knife or bludgeon of sorts. Banning guns will lessen gun violence, but will
bring up a rise in violence with other weapons.
many people who possess guns should not
one. However I do not see it feasible to strengthen guns laws. I believe that
there should be stronger penalties for people who
caught with a gun illegally and stronger penalties for people who
or threaten violence with a gun. This would make people think twice about
smuggling a gun, or carry them when they
not supposed to. This might also influence Congress to pass a law for a stronger
check on people purchasing a gun, which would satisfy both sides of this
argument. A stronger penalty for gun offenders might cause the amount of
violence without a gun to rise a small amount, people would still attempt to get
a gun, because most people who commit a
assume they can get away with it.
strengthening the gun control laws will not prevent murderers from murdering
people, it will only make it more difficult. Although the system is stronger,
people will beat it. The only way I see possible to lessen gun violence is to
make stronger penalties for gun offenders.
bludg.eon - n
// vt 1
bur.glar - n
- adj 1
smug.gle - vt+vi
un.car.ing - adj
indivisible and interdependent. Human rights
what make us human. When we speak of the right to life, or development, or to
dissent and diversity, we
speaking of tolerance. Tolerance will ensure all freedoms. Without it, we can be
certain of none.
The raging ethnic
cleansing in Kosovo is an example of intolerance. The Serbians will not tolerate
the Albanians at any cost. They
forcing them from their homes, turning the streets into killing fields. This
war seems unstoppable because of the intolerance of one race against another. No
rights, basic human rights.
is right in our own backyard. I am speaking of hate
which plague our society. They
no different today than centuries ago when slavery was allowed. One race against
another. One religion against another, it is all the same. Hate is the opposite
of tolerance. We can only live together through an expression of tolerance of
the differences each of us brings into this world. We should embrace the
differences and share the differences. For this is how we learn, through each
other's differences. Tolerance in all cultures is the basis of peace and
Our country was
founded on the basic idea that all man and women
created equal with liberty and justice for all. We must respect and preserve the
rights of all, for when the rights of one is threatened the rights of all
diminished. I would like to leave you with this story to ponder. In
they came for the Communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a
Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a
Jew. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn't speak up because I was a
Protestant. Then they came for
and by that
no one was left to speak up. Remember tolerance and mercy have always and in all
of government rule and human behavior. Today, we call these
human rights. Human rights
to be respected and preserved if we
progress as a society and as a people.
Organized government would be non-existent if human rights were not preserved
This Nation was
founded by men of many nations and
It was founded on the principle that all men
created equal, and that the rights of every man
diminished when the rights of one man
threatened. Human rights
the foundation of human existence and coexistence. Human rights
indivisible and interdependent. Human rights
what make us human. When we speak of the right to life, or development, or to
dissent and diversity, we
speaking of tolerance. Tolerance- - promoted, protected and enshrined- - will
ensure all freedoms. Without it, we can be certain of none.
those rights which
inherent in each of us by virtue of the fact the we
members of the human species. For example, one human right would be the right to
live free from unprovoked acts of violence. Another would be the right to be
recognized and respected as a person. Without respect for each others basic
human rights , organized anything would be virtually impossible. The law of the
land would be replaced by the law of the jungle. Protection of human rights if
essential for any organized society. Respect and protection of human rights and
organized government can not be separated, one can not exist without the other.
the expression of those traditions of tolerance in all religious and cultures
the basis of peace and progress. Human rights
foreign to no culture and native to all nations. Tolerance and mercy have always
and in all cultures been
of government rule and human behavior. Today, we call these
It is the
university of human rights that gives them their strength. It endows them
with the power to cross any border, climb any wall, defy any force. The
human rights has always and everywhere been the struggle against all forms of
tyranny and injustice- -against slavery, against colonialism, against
It is nothing less and nothing different today. Our great country was founded on
the basic idea that all man
created equal with liberty and justice for all. We must remember with rights
responsibility. The responsibility to respect and preserve the rights of all. I
would like to leave you with this story to ponder. In
they came for the Communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a
Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a
Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I
wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn't speak up
because I was a Protestant. Then they came for
and by that
no one was left to speak up. If we expect our rights to be respected and
protected we must speak up to preserve human rights for all humanity. We must
become watchdogs of our government to insure that human rights will be respected
and protected, for without human rights there is no organized government.
- n 1
dis.sent - n 1
5 vi (from)
endowed with dotado
ra.ging - adj 1
security check -
faced with an ever-growing problem of violence. Our streets have become a
battleground where the elderly
beaten for their
security checks, where terrified women
viciously attacked and raped, where teen-age gangsters shoot it out for a patch
of turf to sell their illegal drugs, and where innocent children
caught daily in the crossfire of drive-by shootings. We cannot ignore the damage
that these criminals
doing to our society, and we must take actions to stop these
However, the effort by some misguided
to eliminate the
ownership of firearms does not address the
problem at hand, and simply disarms the innocent law-abiding citizens who
most in need of a form of self-defense.
understand the reasons behind the gun control efforts, we must
at the history of our country, and the role firearms have played in it. The
second amendment to the Constitution of the
makes firearm ownership
in this country. There were good reasons for this freedom, reasons which persist
today. Firearms in the new world were used initially for hunting, and
occasionally for self-defense. However, when the colonists felt that the burden
of British oppression was too much for them to bear, they picked up their
personal firearms and went to war. Standing against the British armies, these
rebels found themselves opposed by the greatest military force in the world at
The 18th century witnessed the height of the
but the rough band of colonial freedom fighters discovered the power of the
Minuteman, the average American gun owner. These Minutemen, so named because
they would pick up their personal guns and jump to the defense of their country
on a minute's notice, served a
part in winning the American Revolution. The founding fathers of this country
understood that an armed populace was instrumental in fighting
oppression, and they made the right to keep and bear arms a constitutionally
Over the years,
some of the reasons for owning firearms have changed. As our country grew into a
strong nation, we expanded westward, exploring the wilderness, and building new
towns on the frontier. Typically, these new towns were far away from the centers
of civilization, and the only law they had was dispensed by townsfolk through
the barrel of a gun.
existed, but could be minimized when the townspeople fought back against the
criminals. Eventually, these organized townspeople developed police forces as
their towns grew in size. Fewer people carried their firearms on the street, but
the firearms were always there, ready to be used in self-defense.
It was after the
War that the first gun-control advocates came into existence. These were
southern leaders who were afraid that the newly freed black slaves would assert
their newfound political rights, and these leaders wanted to make it easier to
oppress the free blacks. This oppression was accomplished by passing laws making
it illegal in many places for black people to own firearms. With that effort,
they assured themselves that the black population would be subject to their
control, and would not have the ability to fight back. At the same
the people who were most intent on denying black people their basic rights
walked around with their firearms, making it impossible to resist their efforts.
An unarmed man stands little
against an armed one, and these armed men saw their plans work completely. It
was a full century before the
rights activists of the 1960s were able to restore the constitutional freedoms
that blacks in this country were granted in the 1860s.
a slightly different breed. They claim that gun violence in this country has
gotten to a point where something must be done to stop it. They would like to
see criminals disarmed, and they want the random violence to stop. I agree with
their sentiments. However, they
going about it in the wrong way. While claiming that they want to take guns out
of the hands of criminals, they work to pass legislation that would take the
guns out of the hands of law-abiding citizens instead. For this reason the
efforts at gun control do not address the
definition of a criminal is someone who does not obey the law. The simple
definition of a law-abiding citizen is someone who does obey the law. Therefore,
if we pass laws restricting ownership of firearms, which category of people does
it affect? The simple answer is that gun control laws affect law-abiding
citizens only. By their very nature, the criminals will continue to violate
these new laws, they will continue to carry their firearms, and they will find
their efforts at
much easier when they know that their victims will be unarmed. The situation is
to that of the disarmed blacks a century ago. Innocent people
turned into victims when new laws make it impossible for them to fight back. An
unarmed man stands little
against an armed one. An interesting recent development has been the backlash
against the gun-control advocates. In many states, including
citizens have stated that they want to preserve their right to carry firearms
for self-defense. Since the late 1980s,
has been issuing concealed weapons permits to law-abiding citizens, and these
citizens have been carrying their firearms to defend themselves from rampant
The result is that the incidence of violent
has actually dropped in contrast to the national average. Previously,
had been leading the nation in this category, and the citizens of that state
have welcomed the change. Gun control advocates tried to claim that there would
be bloodshed in the streets when these citizens were given the right to carry.
They tried to claim that the cities of
would become like
with shoot outs on every street
These gun control advocates were wrong. Over 200,000 concealed carry permits
have been issued so far, with only 36 of these permits revoked for improper use
of a firearm. This statistic is easy to understand. It is the law-abiding
going through the process of getting concealed carry permits so that they may
legally carry a firearm. The people who go through this
process do not want to break the law, and they do not intend to break the law.
The people who do intend to break the law will carry their guns whether or not
the law allows them to do so.
always find ways to get guns. In this country we have criminalized the use,
possession, sale, and transportation of many kinds of narcotics, but it's still
easy for someone to take a ride and purchase the drugs of their choice at street
vendors. Firearms and ammunition would be just as easy for these black-market
entrepreneurs to deliver to their customers. Today, criminals often carry
illegal weapons, including sawed-off shotguns, machine guns, and homemade
zip-guns, clearly showing their disregard for the current laws which make these
illegal. And when they
caught, the courts regularly dismiss these lesser weapons
when prosecuting for the more serious
being committed with the weapons.
The gun control
advocates have argued their case by demonizing the gun itself, rather than
addressing the people who commit violent
This is the main fallacy in their argument. They slyly attempt to claim that
possession of a gun turns average citizens into bloodthirsty lunatics. This
theory falls apart under
possession of a firearm caused this sort of attitude, then why
rates highest in areas such as
which have strict gun control laws? And why
rates dropping in states such as
where private ownership of firearms is encouraged? Simply stated,
ownership of a gun does not cause
The most recent
efforts of the gun control
have been to claim that certain types of guns and ammunition
inherently evil. They assign emotional catch phrases such as "assault weapons"
and "cop killer bullets" to broad categories of firearms and ammunition in the
hopes that people will believe that some guns have an evil nature. Most people
unfamiliar with firearms do not fully understand what these phrases mean, and
they accept the terms being used without question. What people do not often
understand is that the term "assault weapon" has been defined to include all
and "cop killer" has been defined to include any bullet that can penetrate type
two body armor. It
as a surprise to most people that a large number of simple hunting
can do both. Does ownership of one of these weapons cause people to become
murderers? It does not, and we must not fall into the trap of blaming the sword
for the hand that wields it.
So I've shown
that the act of making it illegal to own firearms does little to prevent
criminals from getting guns. These laws only restrict people who respect the law
itself, the people who would only use firearms for
purposes anyway. And when we give people the right to defend themselves, we find
that criminals start looking for other victims out of fear that they will become
the victims themselves. We must work to reduce
but we should
at the problem realistically, and develop plans that would be effective. It is
obvious that gun control laws
neither realistic, nor effective in reducing
Therefore, we must direct our efforts toward controlling
ownership of firearms.
a.bid.ing - n 1
// abidingly adv
a.bide - vt+vi 1
4 conformar-se. 5
abide by a)
I cannot abide mice
I cannot abide contradiction
a.mend.ment - n
2 aperfeiçoamento, melhoramento,
4 reforma, melhoria,
back.lash - n 1
Patch - n 1
// vt 1
pop.u.lace - n
towns.folk - n
- n 1
the turf) a)
bloods.hed.ding n derramamento de
- 1 Milit.
- n Fran.
as.sault - n 1
as.sign - n Jur.
// vt 1
he was assigned a function foi-lhe atribuída uma
TEXT 3 - In
growing numbers, young Americans
finding jobs abroad
During the palmy days of the high-rolling 1980s, some
Harvard Business School M.B.A. candidates would march into commencement
ceremonies waving dollar bills, graphically displaying what they thought their
futures held. They have not been doing that in the entrenched and downsized
'90s. Now they brandish miniature flags of foreign countries.
More and more Americans
discovering that faraway places can yield up challenging occupations. Gregory
Piccininno, 29, a
native and a graduate of the
found himself drawn to what he calls the “savage capitalism” of
He works for a Brazilian financial firm in
socializes mostly with
friends, with whom he speaks Portuguese, and has no plans to leave anytime soon.
“As a non- Brazilian, I get a lot of respect, if for nothing else than my
abilities in English”, he says.
TEXT 4 -
The Astonishing Moment
Rapidly, very very quickly,
all the colours faded; it became darker and darker as at the beginning
of a violent storm; the
sank and sank; we kept saying this is the shadow; and we thought now it is over
- this is the shadow; when suddenly the
went out. We had fallen. It was extinct. There was no colour. The earth was
dead. That was the astonishing moment: and the next when as if a
ball had rebounded, the cloud took colour on itself again; and so the
came back. I had very strongly the feeling as the
went out of some vast obeisance; something kneeling down and
suddenly raised up when the colours came... Then it was all over till 1999.
Virginia Woolf in her diary,
Thursday, June, 30, 1927.
- “In its 81
years, the Pulitzer Prize has done much more than recognize 12-part newspaper
stories on environmental abuse. At
www.cjr.org, historians and journalism
addicts can now search a comprehensive database of the awards given out annualy
Users can read
descriptions of the winners in journalism, letters, music and
And for the honorees of the past three years, you'll find the full text of the
articles, as well as the winning photos, cartoons and musical compositions, with
a violent reality that people have to deal with in today's cities. What has made
these groups come about? Why do kids feel that being in a gang is both an
acceptable and prestigious way to live? The long range answer to these questions
can only be speculated upon, but in the
term the answers
much easier to find. On the surface, gangs
a direct result of human beings' personal wants and peer pressure. To determine
how to effectively end gang violence we must find the way that these
given to the
Unfortunately, these can only be hypothesized. However, by looking at the way
influenced in society, I believe there is good evidence to point the blame at
several institutions. These include the forces of the media, the government,
theatre, drugs and our economic system.
On the surface,
caused by peer pressure and greed. Many teens in gangs will pressure peers into
becoming part of a gang by making it all sound glamorous. Money is also an
factor. A kid (a 6-10 year old, who is not yet a member) is shown that s/he
could make $200 to $400 for small part
gang jobs. Although these
important factors they
not strong enough to make kids do things that
strongly against their
One of the ways
bent so that gang violence becomes more acceptable is the influence of
television and movies. The average child spends more
at a TV than she/he spends in a classroom. Since nobody can completely turn
their minds, kids must be learning something while watching the TV. Very few
hours of television watched by children
educational, so other ideas
being absorbed during this period of
on television today
extremely violent and
often shown this from a gang's perspective. A
adult can see that this is showing how foully that gangs
However, to a child this portrays a violent gang
as acceptable. 'The Ends Justifies the Means' mentality is also taught through
where the "goody guy" captures the "bad guy" through violence and is then being
commended. A young child sees this a perfectly acceptable because he knows that
the "bad guy" was wrong but has no idea of what acceptable apprehension
television also takes a big part in influencing young minds. Children see gory
fascinated by these things that they have not seen before. Older viewers see
not concerned with the blood but rather with the pain the victim must feel. A
younger mind doesn't make this connection. Thus a gore fascination is formed,
and has been seen in several of my peers. Unfortunately kids raised with this
sort of television end up growing up with a stronger propensity to becoming a
violent gang member or 'violent- acceptant' person.
"Gangs bring the
delinquent norms of society into intimate contact with the
(Marshall B Clinard, 1963). So, as you can see if TV
a child to believe that violence is the norm this will manifest itself in the
actions of the child
often in a gang situation. This is especially the case when parents don't spend
a lot of
with their kids at the TV explaining what is right and what is wrong.
often newer books and some types of music will enforce this type of thought and
mentality is installed in youngsters they become increasingly prone to being
easily pushed into a gang situation by any problem at home or elsewhere. For
instance, in poor families with many children or upper-middle class families
always working, the children will often feel deprived of love. Parents can often
feel that putting food on the table is enough love. Children of these families
may often go to the gang firstly out of boredom and to belong somewhere. As
goes on, a form of love or kinship develops between the gang members and the
child. It is then that the bond between the kid and the gang is completed
because the gang has effectively taken the place of the family.
The new anti
structure of cities also effects the ease in which a
can join a gang. " The formation of gangs in cities, and most recently in
suburbs, is facilitated by the same lack of community among parents. The parents
do not know what their children
doing for two reasons: First, much of the parents' lives is outside the
community, while the children's lives
lived almost totally within it. Second, in a fully developed community, the
network of relations gives every parent, in a sense, a community of sentries who
can keep him informed of his child's activities. In modern living-places (city
or suburban), where such a network is attenuated, he no longer has such
In male gangs
problems occur as each is the members tries to be the most manly. This often
to all members participating in "one-up-manship".
often this will then
to each member trying to commit a bigger and more violent
or simply more
than the others. With all members participating in this sort of activity it
makes for a never ending unorganized violence spree (A sort of Clockwork Orange
mentality). In gangs with more intelligent members, these feelings end up making
each member want to be the star when the groups commit a
This makes the gang much more organized and improves the morale of members which
in turn makes them more dangerous and very hard for the police to deal with and
catch (There is nothing harder to find and deal with than organized teens that
dedicated to the group). This sort of gang is usually common of middle or upper
class people although it can happen in gangs in the projects and other low rent
"one-up-manship" is often the reason between
gangs fighting. All gangs feel powerful and they want to be feared. To do this
they try to establish themselves as the only gang in a certain neighborhood.
After a few gang fights hatred forms and gang murders and drive-by's begin to
take place. When two gangs
at war it makes life very dangerous for citizens in the area. Less that 40% of
drive-by's kill their intended victim yet over 60% do kill someone. This gang
application is one of the many reasons that
sterotypes and pressure to conform to the same must be stopped.
Lastly one of the
great factors in joining a gang is for protection. Although from an objective
point of view, we can see joining a gang brings more danger than it saves you
from, this is not always the way it is seen by kids. In slums such as the
or the very worst case,
children will no doubt be beaten and robbed if they do not join a gang. Of
course they can probably get the same treatment from
when in a gang. The gang also provides some money for these children who
often need to feed their families. The reason kids think that the gang will keep
them safe is from
from the gangs. Gang members will say that no one will get hurt and make a
of revenge if a member is hurt or killed.
People in low
most often being repressed due to poverty and most importantly, race. This often
results in an attitude that motivates the person to
his/her life on doing what the system that oppresses them doesn't want. Although
this accomplishes little it is a big factor in gang
So, as you have
a product of the environment we have created for ourselves. Some of these
factors include: oppression, the media, greed, violence and other gangs. There
seems to be no way to end the problem of gangs without totally restructuring the
modern economy and value system. Since the
of this happening is minimal, we must learn to cope with gangs and try to keep
their following to a minimum. Unfortunately there is no
organized force to help fight gangs. Of course the police
supposed to do this but this situation
often deals with
issues also and the police forces regularly
their increasing inability to deal fairly with these issues. What we need
more people to form organizations like the "Guardian Angels" a gang-like group
that makes life very tough for street gangs that
gore.1 - n
gore.2 - n
gore.3 - vt
gor.y - adj
man.ly - adj
age, race, sex or religion, divorce has devastating, often long-term,
consequences. The immediate effects of divorce, such as hurt, anger and
evident in both children and adults. The longer-term effects
not so easy to pin point.
usually able to articulate their emotions and verbalize their distress, anger,
pain and confusion to help themselves through this period of transition in their
lives. As well, adults have the means and ability to seek outside professional
assistance independently. Children on the other hand,
not as likely to have the ability to identify the source or kind of turmoil they
experiencing. Therefore, it is difficult for us, as adults, to be fully aware of
the consequences of divorce on our children.
It is estimated
that nearly one half of children born today will spend
in a single parent household. Although some of these children
born into single parent families, many more
the product of divorce, and
made to endure the conflict and emotional upset that divorce brings about. At
when children require stability and emotional support, the pressures of growing
often compounded by the stress of divorce and family breakdown.
involves children many questions must be answered. Questions such as: With whom
will the children live? How often will the non-custodial parent have access, and
under what circumstances? Although simple to ask, these questions
never easy to answer, and children frequently become pawns in a
make up the majority of parents who
awarded custody, with fathers making up only 13%. However, this was not always
to the 19th century, fathers, under English common law followed in
, received automatic custody of their children when the marriage dissolved.
During the 19th century
change occurred. Mothers were first given custody of young children and
eventually of older children as well. Today, the
is changing again, with many couples opting for, or courts ordering, joint
have been done to decipher which custody situation provides the most security
and stability for children of divorced families, but it remains that each
situation is unique and the individuality of the child(ren) must be the
consideration in making these arrangements.
The decision for
a couple to divorce is, at best, an emotionally difficult and exhausting
The decision is most difficult when there
children involved. Present estimates predict that half of all marriages will end
in divorce, with sixty percent of these marriages involving children. Some
couples will delay the decision to divorce until the children
grown, in an attempt to avoid placing undue stress on them. However, during this
many parents become emotionally withdrawn and
unable to provide their children with the support that they require. Depressed
and angry parents often find themselves unable to provide the emotional comfort
their children crave, and some
so caught up in their own pain that they
not even aware of their children’s. Likewise, parents who suddenly find
themselves overburdened by their increased workload may let their routines and
schedules slip and ultimately the child(ren) once again lose support.
typically followed by a "crisis period" typically lasting for two to three
years. This crisis period is commonly composed of three
emotional crisis, economic crisis, and parenting crisis. This crisis period is
usually worse for
and brings with it two
types of behaviour problems among children: externalizing disorders and
internalizing disorders. Girls
more likely to suffer the internalizing disorders, and become anxious and
most likely to suffer the externalizing disorders and become more physically and
verbally aggressive. Parents, who
frequently caught up in their own crisis, may miss these cries for help, or deal
harshly with any bad behaviour exhibited by their children. This only serves to
perpetuate the problem by causing a vicious cycle of misbehaviour and harsh
Children need two
things during the crisis period that typically follows divorce: emotional
support and structure. Unfortunately parents, as well as teachers and other
adults, frequently overlook these needs, and school
drops as a result of the anxiety and divided loyalties that the children may
Among the already
dreary statistics, children of single parent households
at risk for becoming delinquent, and daughters
at an increased risk of becoming single mothers themselves.
of divorce for the family
many. The quality of life for the family is usually altered and in many cases
diminished, at least for a period of
Many children, who enjoyed a middle-class lifestyle
to the divorce of their parents, suddenly find themselves
on the poverty line because the average family income for women decreases by
almost 40% in the first year. The sudden decrease in family income can produce a
ripple effect, changing many aspects of the family lifestyle. The drop in income
may mean having to relocate to more affordable housing, often in a less
desirable neighborhood, which in turn might mean a new school, new peers, and
many other adjustments for the child who is already struggling.
seems, have become the unwilling, silent victims in a
of he said, she said. Even children who
the most bitter of divorces
not immune. Research has shown that almost all children
"moderately or severely distressed when parents separate, and most
continue to experience confusion, sadness or anger for months or years after,"
(Skolnick, 1997).With divorce becoming commonplace in our society, one would
safety nets have been put in place to deal with the emotional fallout. Sadly
enough, this is not always the case. Children
still being forced to play grown-ups while grown ups continue to be oblivious to
the hurt and pain suffered by these children on a daily basis. Authors and
researchers, Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur have proposed some
changes that would help to heal, educate and prevent the devastating effects of
divorce on children. Their proposal includes that young adults be educated about
the risks of non-marital parenthood. It suggests that government programs such
as mother’s allowances be available to all families in an attempt to keep two
parent families from breaking under financial stresses. They further recommend
that community involvement be increased to help both struggling parents and
their children. McLanahan and Sandefur offer suggestions for making these ideas
work. These include extending school hours and using the facilities for
activities such as music, sport and art. Developing
programs would give these children an opportunity to become a part of their
community in helpful ways while teaching them skills and giving them the
opportunity for nurturing adult relationships.
In any case, with
seemingly irreversible, it is obvious that we need to do something to take the
of the children who fall through the
of divorce. Leaving things as they
will only encourage an increase in delinquency and single parenthood in future
has come to give childhood back to the children and responsibility for the
children back to the parents.
- n 1 trivialidade,
like.wise - adv
e conj 1 do
- n 1
- n 1
// vt 1
to give in pawn
in pawn empenhado
- n 1
5 tranqueta. 6
12 pins pl Coloq. gambias,
// vt 1
Pediatric allergies take toll on kids too
CHICAGO (Reuters) - Allergies can not only make children out of sorts during the
day, but can interfere with their sleep, too, researchers reported in a study to
be released on Monday.
survey of hundreds of parents and doctors found spring was by far the worst
allergy season, according to three-fourths of respondents.
Sponsored by Sepracor Inc,
partner of Denmark-based Nycomed Co, the survey found some children's allergy
severe enough to interfere with sleep and daily activities.
Twenty-nine percent of parents whose children had allergies said their children
suffer from a lack of sleep, compared with 12 percent of parents
whose children did not have allergies.
have known anecdotally that children
affected by allergy symptoms similarly to adults, but Pediatric Allergies in
America offers the first
quantifying the scope of how allergies interrupt a child's productivity, sleep
cycle and daily functioning," said Dr. Jay Portnoy, president of the American
College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.
Forty percent of parents said their children's
allergies interfere with school
compared to 10 percent of parents whose children did not have allergies.
Nearly half of the children in the study take prescription medication for
allergy symptoms, but about 57 percent of parents said they have changed their
medication, most often because it was not effective enough, according to the
telephone survey included 500 adults with at least one child with
allergies and about the same number whose children did not. It also included a
survey of about 500 doctors who treat children with
drugs save limbs from frostbite
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Doctors using specialized imaging methods to precisely
deliver drugs to frostbitten hands and feet may be able to save them from
amputation, researchers reported on Monday.
radiologists used angiography, an X-ray of the blood vessels, to confirm loss of
blood flow in the severely frostbitten hands and feet of 17 patients.
catheters into the arteries to directly deliver clot-busting drugs to dissolve
the blood clots and anti-spasmodics to relax the arteries.
helped 90 percent of the patients, they told a
of the Society of Interventional Radiology.
"Previously, severe frostbite was a one-way route to limb loss. This treatment
is a significant improvement." said Dr. George Edmonson, an interventional
radiologist with St.
who worked on the study.
"We're opening arteries that
blocked so that tissues can heal and limbs can be salvaged(salvos).
were able to reopen even the smallest arteries, saving patients' fingers and
toes," Edmonson added.
Severe frostbite can block blood flow and cause small clots to form. These clots
can worsen already slowed blood flow.
half our patients who received the clot-busting drug Tenectaplase, this
technique worked beautifully, saving all fingers, hands, toes and feet that
otherwise would have been lost", said Edmonson.
"Overall, in about 80 percent of the cases, it significantly improved patients'
outcomes. Within one to three days of treatment, we saw improvement."
(Reporting by Maggie Fox; Editing by Doina Chiacu)
- n ulceração produzida
etc. // vt (imp. -bit. p. p. -bitten)
- n 1
// vt+vi 1
the thread is broken o
arrebentou. my life hung by a thin thread
she lost the thread of her tale
to thread one's way through
In recent years,
euthanasia has become a very heated
It is a Greek word that means "easy death" but the controversy surrounding it is
just the opposite. Whether the issue is refusing prolonged life mechanically,
assisting suicide, or active euthanasia, we eventually confront our
society's fears toward death itself. Above others, our culture breeds
fear and dread of aging and dying. It is not easy for most of the western world
to see death as an inevitable part of life. However, the issues that surround
not only about death, they
about ones liberty, right to privacy and control over his or her own body. So,
the question remains: Who has the right?
clear distinctions between the two types of euthanasia. One group of actions
taken to bring about the death of a dying patient -withdrawal of life support,
referred to by some as passive euthanasia- has been specifically upheld by the
courts as a
right of a patient to request and a
act for a doctor to perform. A second group of actions taken to bring about the
death of a dying patient -physician-assisted death, referred to by some as
active euthanasia- is specifically prohibited by laws in most states banning
"mercy killing" and is condemned by the American Medical Association. Although
it is not a
to be present when a person takes his or her life, it is a
to take direct action intentionally designed to help facilitate death - no
matter how justifiable and compassionate the circumstances may be.1 With active
euthanasia, it is the doctor who administers the lethal drug
Since it is tantamount to homicide, the few
doctors who perform it have been brought to
but none of them have ever been convicted and imprisoned.
in euthanasia in the
began in 1870, when a commentator, Samuel Williams, proposed to the Birmingham
Speculative Club that euthanasia be permitted "in all cases of hopeless and
painful illness" to bring about "a quick and painless death." The word
"painless" is important: the idea of euthanasia began gaining ground in modern
not because of new technologies for agonizingly prolonging life but because of
the discovery of new drugs, such as morphine and various anesthetics for the
relief of pain, that could also painlessly induce death. Over the next three
decades Williams's proposal was reprinted in
and books, discussed in the pages of prominent literary and political journals,
and debated at the
of American medical societies and nonmedical professional associations. The
culminated in 1906, after the
legislature took up "An Act Concerning Administration of Drugs etc. to Mortally
Injured and Diseased Persons", which was a bill to legalize euthanasia. After
being debated for months, the
legislature overwhelmingly rejected the bill, effectively ending that chapter of
reemerged in the 1970's, when in 1976
was the first state to legalize a patient's right to refuse life-prolonged
treatment. The Legislature passed the
Death Act, which allows for
wills, an advance directive to a doctor requesting the withholding or
withdrawing of life sustaining treatment. Today, all states have some form of
will legislation. In addition, the
who wishes to have such a will, may also designate a family member or friend as
a proxy to make the decisions for him or her, should he or she be unable to make
the decisions himself or herself. Some states also require the
to sign a power of attorney to do so.
In 1976, the New
Jersey Supreme Court decided the parents of Karen Ann Quinlan won the right to
remove her from a ventilator because she was in a persistent vegetative state.
The justices unanimously ruled that this act was necessary to respect Quinlan's
right to privacy. Some medical ethicists warned then that the ruling(decisão
beginning of a trend-the slippery slope-which could
to decisions to end a person's life being made by third parties not only on the
basis of medical condition but also on such considerations as age, economic
or even ethnicity.
In 1990, the
Supreme Court case, Cruzan v.
recognized the principle that a person has a constitutionally protected right to
refuse unwanted medical treatment. In 1983, Nancy Beth Cruzan lapsed into an
accident. Before the accident, she had said several
that if she were faced with life as a "vegetable," she would not want to live.
Her parents went to court in 1987 to force the
to remove the tube by which she was being given nutrition and water. The
Missouri Supreme Court refused to allow the life support to be withdrawn, saying
there was no "clear and convincing" evidence Nancy Cruzan wanted that done. The
U.S. Supreme Court agreed, but it also held that a person whose wishes were
clearly known had a constitutional right to refuse life-sustaining medical
treatment. After further proof and witness testimony, a probate court judge in
Dec. 14, 1990,
that Cruzan's parents had the right to remove their daughter's feeding
tube, which they immediately proceeded to do. Nancy Cruzan died
Dec. 26, 1990.
decision sparked a fresh interest in
wills and in 1990 Congress passed the Patient Self-Determination Act. It
requires health care facilities that receive Medicare or Medicaid funds (95
percent of such centers) to inform new patients about their
right to write a
will or choose a proxy to represent their wishes about medical treatment, and
what kind of measures will be taken automatically for patients as institutional
policy. Where state law permits, these institutions must
wills or the appointment of a health care proxy.
March 6, 1996,
for the first
history, in the case
v. Glucksberg, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th circuit in
law that made assisted suicide a felony. The existing ban on assisted suicide
was successfully challenged under the equal protection clause of the
Constitution's Fourteenth Amendment. The court noted that, under present law, a
dying patient on life support may legally have it removed to facilitate death
while another dying patient, not on life support but suffering under equivalent
circumstances and equally
to death, has no means by which to end his or her lives. The court, ruled that,
bans on assisted suicide constitute a violation of the second patient's equal
protection rights under the Fourteenth Amendment.
In his majority
opinion, appellate Judge Stephen Reinhardt of
wrote: "If broad
state policies can be used to deprive a terminally ill
of the right to make that choice, it is hard to envision where the exercise of
arbitrary and intrusive power by the state can be halted."
analysis relies heavily on language drawn from U.S. Supreme Court abortion case,
Roe v. Wade, because the issues have "compelling similarities," he wrote. Like
the decision of whether or not to have an abortion, the decision how and when to
die is one of "the most intimate and personal choices a person may make in a
lifetime," a choice "central
to personal dignity and autonomy."
April 2, 1996,
in the case of Vacco v. Quill, the U.S. Appeals Court for the Second Circuit in
struck down that state's law making it illegal for doctors to help terminally
ill people end their own lives. But whereas the Ninth Circuit decision was based
on the Fourteenth Amendment and privacy issues, the Second Circuit ruling in
April invoked an "equal protection" argument that people suffering
illnesses should have the same right as those, such as Quinlan, who
and have the law on their side in the decision to halt life-sustaining
nourishment or treatment. "Physicians do not
the role of 'killer' by prescribing drugs to hasten death," wrote Second Circuit
Judge Roger J. Miner, "any more than they do by disconnecting life-support
In 1997, both
Washington v. Glucksberg and Vacco v. Quill went before(ficaram
Supreme Court. The Court took a
at the cases and backed away from the "slippery slope" by their unanimous
decision to uphold state laws in
banning doctor assisted suicide. Chief Justice William Rehnquist wrote,
"Throughout the nation, Americans
engaged in an earnest and profound
about the morality, legality and practicality of physician-assisted suicide. Our
to continue, as it should in a democratic society." However, the Court left open
the possibility that such bans might be invalid when applied to
cases involving great suffering at the end of a
In 1994 a limited
right to die measure squeaked through(foi
The Oregon law allowed doctors to prescribe, but not administer, a deadly
of medication to terminally ill patients, defined as those diagnosed as having
less than six months to live. By the Court kicking back the decision to the
states in June, the Supreme Court then refused to hear the challenge on that
physician assisted suicide law on
October 14, 1997.
now permitted to prescribe life-ending medication to anyone who is mentally
competent and diagnosed with less than six months to live. But the patient may
only take a lethal
after completing a 15-day waiting period. The law does not specify what
medication may be used. Under the approved
law, patients may request doctor assisted suicide if: 1) They
mentally competent. 2) They
diagnosed as having less than six months to live. 3) They request a lethal
prescription from a doctor today, and wait the required 15 days. After the
waiting period, during which patients can rescind their request at any
free to take the drugs. Oregon Board of Medical Examiners will oversee physician
compliance with the law. Patients or families with concerns can contact the
board, and a 25-member task force of health and ethics
will decide some of the policy questions that will guide the state's
of the new law. Several
expect there will be further guidelines to carry out this new policy.
discussions about euthanasia and assisted suicide in the
turn to the situation in the
Although euthanasia still is a criminal
there, punishable by up to 12 years in prison, it is increasingly tolerated in
practice. Dutch physicians who put hopelessly ill patients to death after being
asked to do so
not prosecuted if they follow certain guidelines formulated by the courts.
In a series of
Dutch court cases decided between 1973 and 1984, two conditions were deemed
essential for legitimizing euthanasia. First, the patient must make the request
at his own initiative, repeatedly and explicitly expressing his wish to die.
Second, the patient must be suffering from severe physical or
pain, with no prospect of recovery. Since 1984, Dutch courts have added a third
condition - that a physician intending to perform euthanasia first consult a
colleague to confirm the accuracy of the diagnosis, verify the planned means of
bringing about death and ascertain that all
being met. Some court cases have also cited as requirements
the presence of an incurable disease or a demand that death by euthanasia not
inflict unnecessary suffering on others.
Dutch euthanasia patient is first given a shot of barbiturates, which causes
unconsciousness within three to five seconds. A follow-up shot of
produces death in 10 to 20 minutes by paralyzing the respiratory system. A Dutch
doctor who performs euthanasia is not permitted to attribute death to "natural
causes" on the death certificate. Rather, he or the coroner(medico
inform the police that a medically aided(assistido)
death has occurred. The police, in turn, report to the district attorney, who
decides whether to prosecute.
Jack Kevorkian killed a man suffering from Lou Gehrig's disease and gave the
videotape to "60 Minutes." Thomas Youk, 52, was killed by lethal injection of
potassium chloride at the hands of Dr. Kevorkian. The ex-pathologist has claimed
to have taken part in over 130 assisted deaths, but this
Dr. Kevorkian taken his work to a new level: he had injected the poisons
himself, rather than rigging up(suprir
homemade "suicide machine" so the patient could kill himself.
banned assisted suicide in September, Kevorkian decided it was
for a new - and perhaps
- showdown in court. This new mercy killing case revived the long and
over whether we have the right to die-and whether doctors should take part in
their patients' deaths. More than 30 states have banned assisted suicide-the act
of helping a person take his own life. Now Kevorkian has gone a step further, to
euthanasia - the act of actually carrying out a mercy killing.
With his new step
toward active euthanasia, Dr. Kevorkian may have lost a number of his
Free Press pool showed most
residents were wary(cautelosos)
Kevorkian's latest move. And some assisted suicide activist who once idolized
refusing to support his graduation to euthanasia. Even if he is aquitted(absolvido)
of the first degree murder
he could find that he is no longer taken serious and could hurt actually his
opponents envision a bleak future for dying patients who don't have access to
health insurance, adequate pain control treatment, or the money to pay for long
term care. Some may feel forced or be coerced by their families and doctors to
opt for euthanasia. Of course, no law can guarantee that coercion will never
occur. We can't know for sure what family members' motives may be in any number
health care and other decisions in which they participate. But should we reduce
our available choices because we don't believe people can always make the right
decisions for the right reasons or because we fear possible abuses? Or should we
continue to expand our
choices and freedoms while doing our best to prevent inappropriate and coerced
influences and to educate all people in critical decision making?
In fact, abuses
far more likely to occur within the present unregulated, covert(escondido,oculto,secreto),
occasional practice of assisted suicide. There is no accountability for such
deaths, no procedures, no safeguards, and no reporting requirements. How much
safer would it be if laws such as those in
were in place nationwide? Can the
over legalization of Euthanasia be compared to the
over legalizing abortion? Wasn't the main reason for legalizing abortion because
it was being done anyway. People still had access to abortion, it was just being
done terribly. We're in exactly the same situation today. People do have access
to assisted suicide, it's just being done poorly.
I believe, that
if in this great country, we have the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of
happiness then why shouldn't a person have the right to control the conditions
of their death as much as they have the right to control the conditions of their
to the Dutch model can help us avoid unnecessary suffering, it would be
worthwhile to work out with the
and medical professions. By firmly establishing the right to die in
an extension of the right to privacy, we
rights against governmental exploitation. If not a
law, there is certainly a
law over one's own body and our life should be subject to our own
self-determination. We have a right to end our own life; and if we cannot
accomplish the task on our own, at our discretion, another person should have
the right to end it for us, as an act of compassion.
American Medical Association issues the Patient Bill of Rights. The
allows patients to refuse medical treatment.
1976- The New
Jersey Supreme Court rules that the parents of Karen Ann Quinlan, who has been
in a tranquilizer-and-alcohol-induced
for a year, can remove her respirator. She dies nine years
1979- Jo Roman, a
artist dying of cancer, makes a videotape, telling her friends and family she
intends to end her life. She
commits suicide with an
of sleeping pills.
Rollin publishes "Last Wish," the story of her mother's battle with ovarian
cancer. The book reveals that
Rollin killed herself with a sedative
1990- Dr. Jack
Kevorkian performs his first assisted suicide, using a homemade machine, to end
the life of Alzheimer's patient Janet Adkins. Meanwhile, after protracted(prolongada)
parents of Nancy Cruzan, who has been in a
for seven years,
allowed to remove her feeding tube. Friends and co-workers testify in court that
she would not have wanted to live.
Society founder Derek Humphry first publishes "Final
Exit." The controversial suicide "how-to" book
becomes a national best seller.
1994- Voters in
pass a referendum making it the only state in the country that allows doctors to
prescribe life-ending drugs for terminally ill patients. The hotly contested law
was not put into effect until last year.
Delury publishes "But What If She Wants to Die?" a diary chronicling his wife's
long battle with multiple sclerosis. The book describes the couple's agonizing
decision to end her life with a drug
Delury served four months in prison for attempted manslaughter for his role in
1997- In a
unanimous decision, the Supreme Court rules that the Constitution does not
guarantee the right to commit suicide with the help of a physician. The decision
upholds laws in
state making it illegal for doctors to give lethal drugs to dying patients.
voters defeat a measure that would have made physician-assisted suicide
as.cer.tain - vt
- n 1
aquiescência. 4 Med.
distensibilidade. 5 flexibilidade. in compliance with
- n 1
ear.nest.1 - n
// adj 1
// earnestly adv seriamente,
in earnest, in
earnest, in good earnest de
earnest money n 1
halt.1 - n
to call a halt
halt.2 - n arc.
coxeadura. // vi
// adj arc.
mer.cy - n 1
at the mercy of à
de. for mercy's sake
Lord, have mercy on us
lapse - vt 1
- (imp. oversaw, p. p. overseen) vt 1
- vt 1
- n 1
// vt+vi 1
- vt 1
b) Zool. estender-se, alongar-se. 2 Agrim.
prox.y - n
representante. // adj
he will be my proxy
representante. to stand proxy for
- adj 1
slippery as an eel
to be on the slippery slope, down the slippery slope
slope - n 1
// vt+vi 1
spark.1 - n 1
Fig.). 2 Eletr.
// vt+vi 1
spark.1 - n 1
Fig.). 2 Eletr.
// vt+vi 1
withholding - n
1 recusa. 2)
TEXT 11 - I want to be six again
A man asked his wife what she’d like
for her birthday. “I’d love to be six again”, she replied.
morning of her birthday, he got her up bright and early and
they went to a
theme park. What a day! He put her on every ride in the park: the Death
the Screaming Loop, the Wall of Fear – everything there was!
Wow! Five hours
she staggered out of the theme park, her head reeling and her stomach upside
down. Right to a McDonald’s they went, where her husband ordered a Big Mac for
her along with
fries and a refreshing
shake. Then it was
to a movie – the latest Star Wars epic, and hot dogs, popcorn, Pepsi
and M&Ms. What a fabulous adventure!
Finally she wobbled home with her husband and
collapsed into bed.
He leaned over and lovingly asked, “Well, dear, what
was it like being six again?”
One eye opened. “You idiot, I meant my dress size.”
of this story is: if a woman speaks and a man is there to hear her, he will get
it wrong anyway.
The excitement continues. This summer, once again,
the Consumer Electronics
will be open to the public.
name manufacturers will return to
to share the latest technological advances in consumer electronics products. And
as exciting as the
itself. Interact with the ever-changing world of Multimedia