PARTE 1

 

TEXT 1

Alice sat alone, in the corner of the room, watching the others at the party. The only people she knew there were Margaret and her husband. Margaret and she worked together in a bank. Margaret was an older woman who took a motherly interest in Alice and had invited her to the party.

The house was full of people, all talking and laughing. Everyone, that is, except her. There was a young man standing near Alice. He looked across at her several times and smiled. Alice pretended not to notice him. When he wasn't looking, she glanced at him shyly. But when he looked at her again, she pretended to be interested in the pattern of the carpet.

Just then, Margaret came into the room. 'Enjoying yourself?', she asked.

'Oh yes. It's very nice.'

'Really? You don't seem to be talking to anyone.'

'Oh, that's just because I ... I prefer to sit and listen for a while', Alice answered.

'But you can't do that all evening. Come on! Let me introduce you to a few people!'

'Oh, don't worry about me, Margaret. I'll be all right. I will, really!'

Margaret looked at her doubtfully. Then her husband shouted something to her from the kitchen and she hurried back to help him bring more food into the room.

An hour later Alice was still sitting in the corner of the room. The young man had got involved in a conversation with another girl. Alice had exchanged a few words with an older woman whom she recognized as a customer from the bank. She kept looking at the door, hoping that someone else she knew would come in. After a while, she got up and went into the kitchen, where Margaret was surrounded by a crowd of people.

'Well?', she asked. Met any interesting people?'

'Oh yes. Lots. It's really been very interesting. Thanks a lot for inviting me', Alice said, looking at her watch.

'You're not going already, are you?', Margaret asked.

'Yes, I'm afraid I have to. I'm expecting a phone call from a friend. I told him I'd be home by ten.'

She unlocked the front door of her small flat and walked in. It was cold and dark. She lit the gas fire and turned on the television. 'Why is it that whenever I go to parties, nobody ever talks to me?', she wondered.

 

Vocabulary:

Doubtfully com dúvidas, com receio

Motherly - maternal

She lit the gas fire Ela acendeu a lareira.

Gas fire = Gas fireplace - tipo de lareira que utiliza ignição automática de gás.

Let alone sem falar de - Exemplo: let alone the costs - sem falar das despesas

Pattern modelo,padrão,desenho

She glanced - ela deu uma rápida olhada.

To look across someone olhar “atravessado” para alguém

 

TEXT 2

Old and young, single and married, rich and poor - anyone can be lonely, irrespective of the number of friends, family and social contacts they actually have. Some people are happy with one or two close friends, others are lost without a crowd - and others still are lost in a crowd.

According to a poll, specially commissioned for The Sunday Times Magazine, approximately 25 per cent of the population are lonely - with women, the elderly, the young, the single parent, the widowed and the unemployed most at risk. Middle-aged married men with jobs and cars are the least likely to be lonely. Young mothers at home with children under five are particularly vulnerable to loneliness and depression, especially if the transition from working wife to housebound mother has been a sudden one.

Elderly people, particularly those who move to a new area on retirement, may be isolated from their families and friends. Illness, disability and fear of going out alone also combine to turn many pensioners into prisoners in their own homes. Teenagers' natural shyness and self-consciousness may make them awkward in the company of their peers and the opposite sex. Single parents feel cut off from a couple-orientated society. Divorce can be shattering to the self-esteem. Divorced people may miss the companionship of even the most unsatisfactory marriage as, of course, do the widowed. With so many contacts being made through work, unemployment can also lead to loneliness.

The Sunday Times Magazine, 11 December 1983

Vocabulary:

Awkward - desajeitado. 2) embaraçado.

Comissioned – encomendada

Elderly – (com) idade avançada

Peer - nesse caso, significa parceiro, pessoa de mesmo nível ou grupo.

Poll - pesquisa, questionário.

Self-esteem – auto-estima

Shattering - destruidor, perturbador

 


 

TEXT 3

 

We decided to give a party last week! So as you can imagine, I've been busy sending out invitations, preparing food, etc. Then, a couple of days before the party, my sister unexpectedly arrived to stay for a week. She really is the most impractical person I know! She kept trying to 'help', and, at the end, I became so cross that I sent her round to my neighbour's while I finished the party preparations. By the time our first guests arrived, I was beginning to regret the whole idea. But everything went off well. Because most of the people already knew one another, it didn't take long for the party to get going. However, I'm not sure if Alice, one of the girls from work, enjoyed it - she's terribly shy and this sometimes makes her appear rather unfriendly. Although I'd like to help her, it's difficult when people don't help themselves, isn't it? I wonder what you've been doing lately? Please write soon and tell me all your news.

Love to all the family,

Margaret

TEXT 4

Jennifer got off the bus from the university and began walking towards the flat she shared with two other students. On her way she had to buy some food and stopped in one of the shops in the street. It was run by an Asian family, and although the prices there were a little higher than in the big supermarket further down the street, she did a lot of her shopping there. The vegetables were fresher and they had various things she couldn't get elsewhere. Mr. Patel, the owner of the shop, was checking through a list, but smiled, as he always did, when he saw her come in.

'How's Mrs. Patel today? She asked.

'Oh, better. But only a little better, I'm afraid, 'Mr. Patel sighed.

'Well, I hope she gets out of hospital soon.'

She picked up a wire basket and walked towards the back of the shop, where the rice was kept. The shop was divided by three long aisles, with rows of shelves crammed with all sorts of things. Except for her and Mr. Patel, there were only two other people there. They were two teenage boys, and they were standing at the end of one of the aisles. She glanced at them as she passed. They were both wearing long, old-fashioned overcoats and they looked rather ridiculous in them because the coats were too big. But such things were popular with some teenagers at the time. 'Watch out, stupid', she heard one of them whisper to the other. She walked on to the next aisle and found the rice she was looking for. Then she heard something else. It sounded like a tin dropping on the floor. She peered through a gap in the shelf and caught a glimpse of one of the boys bending down. She saw him pick up a tin of food. But instead of putting it in the shopping basket, he dropped it into the inside pocket of his long overcoat. Jennifer glanced back down the aisle. She could see Mr. Patel at the cash till, still checking through his list. Then she looked through the gap in the shelf again. The boys still had their backs to her. 'Come on, let's get out of here', she heard one of them say. At the same time, she saw one of them put another tin in his overcoat pocket. They moved away from her. She could no longer see what they were doing or hear what they were saying.

When she got to the till, the two boys were in front of her. She watched them pay for the few things they had in the basket. They had both buttoned their coats and fastened them with their belts. Mr. Patel did not seem suspicious at all. He even smiled at them as they were about to leave. Jennifer opened her mouth to say something.

Vocabulary:

Cash till - caixa registradora

Rice - arroz

She peered through a gap in the shelf and caught a glimpse of one of the boys bending down.'' - ela espiou através de uma abertura(fenda) na prateleira e deu uma rápida olhada em um dos garotos curvando-se.

Three long aisles with rows of shelves crammed with all sorts of things - três longas fileiras(colunas)de prateleiras repletas com todos os tipos de coisas.

Wire basket - Cesta de arames

 

TEXT 5

CONFIDENTIAL

Summary

Strengths:

 

Julia is an extremely intelligent woman who is making a successful career for herself as a financial analyst. In addition to her first-class knowledge of economics, she is able to make a clear assessment of complex problems and make decisions quickly. As well as these valuable qualities, Julia quickly establishes good relations with her colleagues, and is well liked. Moreover, her delightful sense of humour and charming personality make her a valuable asset to the company.

 

Possible weaknesses:

 

At times, Julia tends to act a little impulsively. However, this has not had any serious repercussions in her work. Although she is generally a tolerant person, occasionally she reacts negatively if some small habit, such as nail-biting, annoys her. Julia has the potential to reach the most senior level in the company. However, she is feeling slightly unsettled at present, and unsure about her future plans.

Vocabulary:

Asset - patrimônio

Delightfull - delicioso

Nail-biting - o ato de roer as unhas

Slightly unsettled - um pouco deslocado, um pouco fora do lugar(um pouco perdido)

 


 

TEXT 6

I'm fond of my sister, but I do get annoyed with her sometimes. She's always arguing with me and, even when she's wrong, she never apologises. I think she should! She is going to get married to an Australian next month. She has visited his family near Sydney and liked Australia very much. They're not sure where they'll live when they're married - it might be in Perth. The two of us were going to the States for our summer holiday this year, but that's off now. It's a pity because I was hoping to see some relatives in Boston. Anyway, I've decided I am going camping in Europe instead with some friends who are spending a couple of months there.

Vocabulary:

I'm fond of - Eu adoro OU Eu gosto muito de

I do get annoyed - Eu realmente fico chateado

 

TEXT 7

A few months ago, I moved into a very small flat after living for years with my parents. It is the first time I have ever had a place of my own and I am very fond of it, despite the lack of space. I had been in the flat only for a few days when a friend phoned and practically begged me to let him stay for a while. He explained he had lost his job recently but was sure he would find another one very soon. Since I thought it would be only for short time, I said yes.

More than a month has gone by since then and my friend shows no sign of moving out. There are only two small rooms in the flat, plus the small bathroom and tiny kitchen. He has more or less taken over the front room. What is more, he has brought a lot of clothes and piles and piles of books and old gramophone records with him and I can hardly get in there any more. I don't like sharing the bathroom, either. In fact, I have discovered that I just don't like other people living in my flat!

A few days ago, I decided that enough was enough and that he would have to leave. I intended to tell him that I wanted the place to myself again, but somehow he persuaded me to let him stay longer. He still hasn't found a job and can't afford to rent a room of his own. And there just doesn't seem to be anyone else he can stay with.

Of course, I'd like to help him as much as possible. He is, after all, a friend! But there are limits, even to friendship. I just don't know what I'll do if he is there much longer. Do you think I am being selfish in wanting him out? What would you advise me to do?

Vocabulary:

Begged - implorou 

Can't afford - não pode agüentar pagar

Despite the lack of space – apesar da falta de espaço

He has more or less taken over the front room - ele mais ou menos tomou conta do quarto da frente.

 

TEXT 8

When James got up that morning, his wife, Joyce, was still asleep. So was his daughter. He crept downstairs, trying to make as little noise as possible, and put on his old tracksuit and running shoes. Then he slipped out of the house. Within a few minutes he was jogging through the woods that let to the sea. The sun was just breaking through the early morning mist. It was going to be another fine day. But James hardly noticed.

'My God, I'll be thirty in a few days. What have I done with my life?' he asked himself. As usual, this question made him think of his brother, Hugh. Hugh was a brilliant electronics engineer, and even though he was only a few years older than James, he already had his own company, which specialised in manufacturing delicate computer components. Hugh was earning a lot of money. Hugh had an elegant flat in London and a white Mercedes sports car to go with it. Hugh was engaged to the beautiful daughter of a rich banker. Hugh was a success: There was no doubt about that.

James came out of the woods and ran along the seashore. The bay stretched for miles on either side. It was one of the most beautiful parts of the coast. Poets had written about it. Artists had painted it. But James hardly noticed it that morning.

'What am I? Just a schoolteacher in a sleepy seaside town!' he said to himself. But James knew that he was very good at his job and it gave him a lot of satisfaction. The children and their parents respected him. However, he also knew he would never earn a great deal of money at it, even though life was comfortable enough. His wife was also working again part-time in a travel agency. Mandy, their daughter, was a bright, healthy child and had just started kindergarten.

In another town...

Hugh woke up early that morning, too, feeling terrible. He had been up late the night before, entertaining clients. His mouth felt dry. His head felt as if it were splitting open. He staggered into the bathroom, looking for some aspirin. But then he remembered what his doctor had told him. He had a suspected ulcer, and taking aspirin wasn't good for his stomach. Groaning slightly, he stumbled into the kitchen, where he made himself a pot of extra strong coffee. He sat there, drinking it and thinking about the next few days. All sorts of problems had piled up.

He had agreed to supply a German firm with a large number of computer components. In order to make a profit on the deal, he had to keep his own production costs down to the minimum and meet a strict deadline. But the deadline was only a few days away, and he had run into a number of difficulties in making the components. The German firm was going to phone later that day and ask all sorts of difficult questions.

Then there was Helen, his fiancée. They had had another row and she had told him that she didn't want to see him or talk to him for several days. She said that she 'needed time to think things through'. Hugh wished he could at least see her over the weekend, but he had to go to Buffalo on Friday. He hated the place, and it meant staying in a hotel for several days, which he hated even more. But he was trying to get an important order from an American company there.

In California,

When James got back, his wife had got up. 'Had a good run?', she asked, smiling. He smiled back at her. He dashed upstairs to take a shower and looked into Mandy's bedroom on the way. She was still asleep, with her arms around a big teddy bear. 'I suppose I've got a lot to be thankful for', he said to himself. Then he thought of Hugh again.

'I wonder what he's doing now. Probably getting ready to go abroad again on another business trip, the lucky devil!' he thought.


 

Vocabulary:

''....Slipped out of the house" - saiu rapidamente ou sorrateiramente

All sorts of problens had piled up - todos os tipos de problemas tinham se acumulado

Crept - rastejou

Deadline - prazo final

Fiancée - noiva

Groaning slightly - gedmendo levemente

He dashed upstairs. – ele subiu rapidamente os degraus.

He stumbled into kitchen - ele foi tropeçando para dentro da cozinha

In order to - a fim de

Just a schoolteacher in a sleepy seaside town - apenas um professor de colégio em uma calma (sossegada) cidade do litoral.

On the deal no negócio

Part-time - meio turno

Row – briga

Row - neste texto, significa briga

Seashore - litoral, costa marítima

Splitting – intenso,agudo(dor), lancinante. 2) estridente

Staggered into the bathroom - foi cambaleando para dentro do banheiro(em direção ao banheiro)

The bay stretched for miles on either side - a baía estendia-se por milhas nos dois lados ( para qualquer um dos lados que se olhasse )

Think things through'(think through é uma expressão que significa: pensar cuidadosamente sobre qual é a melhor decisão a tomar

Tracksuit – abrigo(esportivo)

Within – dentro de, no prazo de

 

TEXT 9 ( LETTER )

Dear Simon,

I am replying to your advert for a pen friend. You'd probably like to know something about me, so here goes!

I'm nineteen and live in Salisbury. I left school two years ago, did a secretarial course and now work in a fairly large company. My job is quite varied, and I've made some really good friends at work. I usually go with some of them for a pub lunch. Are you still at school or have you got a job?

In the evenings and at weekends, I usually go dancing or to the cinema. What do you do in your spare time? I'm not very good at sports - except swimming. Do you do any sports?

I live with my parents and brother. He's younger than me and still at school. His exams are only a few weeks away ( poor thing! ). Have you got any brothers or sisters?

Salisbury is famous for its cathedral, of course, but it’s also very good for shopping. Please tell me something about the place where you live.

Next time I write, I'll send you a photo of my family. Do you think you'll ever come to England? It would be nice to meet up sometime.

Best wishes, Caroline.

Vocabulary:

Fairly large company - companhia bastante grande

 

TEXT 10

Even though the house was badly in need of decoration and repair, the Longs decided to buy it. It was rather big, the price was very reasonable, and it was in a part of London not too far from the centre. Both Mr. and Mrs. Long had jobs in the City, so this was important. There was also a good school nearby for their six-year-old daughter, Jane, to go to. It was not until later that they discovered who the house had once belonged to and the terrible things that had happened there.

The first sign of trouble came when they had the house redecorated, just before they moved in. The workmen who did the job refused to work in the house after dark. "It gives me the creeps, it does", one of them said. Then, when the Longs started living in the house, they noticed how cold the rooms were, even though it was in the middle of a warm summer. Not long after that, their daughter began waking up in the middle of the night, screaming. She said she could hear strange voices and that they belonged to dead people. The voices told her that they had been killed in the house and that they had been buried in the garden. 'At first we thought she was just having nightmares, but then my husband and I heard strange noises as well', Mrs. Long says. Sometimes, they both heard more than just strange noises. 'One night, just before George and I went to bed, we heard a woman's voice that seemed to come from nowhere. It said only a few words, "No, no! Stop!", but we both heard it very clearly', Mrs. Long claims.

Shortly after this, Mrs. Long happened to learn from a neighbour more about the history of the house. It had belonged to Gordon Taplow, one of the last men to be hanged in England. He had been found guilty of the murder of three different women, and was suspected of having killed several more. He had killed the women in the house and then had dismembered the victims' bodies in the kitchen before getting rid of them. After his arrest and execution in 1959, the house was bought and sold several times, but nobody ever lived in it for very long. Months, and even years, passed without anybody living in it at all. Mr. and Mrs. Long are convinced they know the reason for this. 'What happened to the bodies of the other women the man is supposed to have killed? He must have buried them somewhere. We think it was in the garden. The house is haunted by their ghosts. Neither my husband nor I are superstitious. But what other possible explanation is there?' Mrs. Long says.

Although the police dug up parts of the garden more than twenty years ago and found nothing, the Longs want them to do the job again, this time more thoroughly. Mrs. Long recently had an interview with a police inspector about this. 'He was very polite but I could see he thought I was just being hysterical. But if they don't do it, we'll have the job done by someone else, even though we can hardly afford it', she says.

Vocabulary:

...It gives me the creeps, it does - realmente me calafrios

Dug up - cavou

Rather big - um tanto grande

Thoroughly - de maneira mais completa(mais perfeita ou mais radical)

TEXT 11

Last Saturday, I happened to be in Portsmouth, a city on the south coast of England. Before I caught the train back to London late in the afternoon, I went into a big self-service restaurant near the station. As soon as I walked through the door, I noticed a certain air of tension. But in spite of this, and even though I was about the only woman in the place, I decided to stay and have a cup of coffee.

It was crowded with teenagers, most of whom were wearing either blue and white scarves or black and white ones. Despite this difference, they all looked pretty much alike, although a few of them had safety pins sticking through their noses and heavy brass rings in their ears, and spikey haircuts in vivid shades of blue, green and purple. But all of them had on the same tight jeans that looked too short for them and denim jackets with lots of badges.

Then I noticed that the kids with black and white scarves were all sitting together at the back of the café and looked unhappy about something, whereas those with blue and white scarves had big grins on their faces. Some of them were chanting 'Pompey, Pompey!', which is the name local people use for Portsmouth, and then 'Two-One, Two-One!' This seemed to annoy the gang with black and white scarves, and I heard shouts of 'Stuff it!' and other things I wouldn't want to see in print.

I had just sat down with my coffee when there was a scuffle near the doors leading to the lavatories. A boy with a blue and white scarf had just come out, and almost tripped over the foot of a kid with a black and white scarf. They exchanged a few words. I couldn't hear exactly what they were but they must have been insults because one of the boys suddenly punched the other. Then I saw some kind of object flying through the air. It might have been an ashtray or a cup, but, whatever it was, it hit the boy with the blue and white scarf on the head with a thud, and he fell to the floor like a stone. That was when all hell broke loose. Kids from the two groups started kicking and punching each other. Chairs and even tables were hurled. The café must have been wrecked, but I didn't stay to see. I got out of there as fast as I could. However, I later read in the newspapers that about twenty youths were arrested that day in Portsmouth as a result of a riot and that several were taken to hospital with various injuries, including stab wounds.

TEXT 11.1

Dear Sir,

After watching the discussion about boxing on television last night, I felt I must write to you. Before I saw this programme, I had not given any thought of the dangers of boxing. However, thanks to your programme, I am now keenly aware of the dangers, particularly of brain damage. Since the government seems unwilling to ban boxing. despite the evidence that is harmful, it seems that the general public must make a stand.

I am particularly concerned about the dangers to young boys who attend boxing clubs. As soon as they step into a ring, they are in danger. But, in spite of all the publicity about the harmful effects of boxing, parents still let their sons attend these classes. Although I believe that people should be free to choose their own sports, I feel that boxing is not a sport and should be banned.

I would like to invite your readers to write to me and tell me their own views on this matter. If there is sufficient support, I shall start a 'Ban Boxing' campaign.

Yours faithfully,

J.R. Samson

Vocabulary:

Alike - semelhantes

Ashtray - cinzeiro

Badge – distintivo, emblema, insígnia

Ban – banir

Chanting - cantando, muitas vezes através de hinos

Denim - sarja de nimes: tecido forte de algodão usado na confecção de calças e saias

Keenly –ardentemente, muito, totalmente

Make a stand – dar um basta

Matter - assunto

Pins – alfinetes, pinos

Punched – soqueou

Riot –tumulto, levante

Scarves – cachecóis

Scuffle - n 1 luta corpo a corpo, briga. 2 tumulto. // vi lutar, brigar'' stuff it '' - chega. 2) basta

Spikey haircuts – cortes de cabelo em forma de espigão ( spike significa espiga )

Stab wounds – ferimentos cortantes.

That was when all hell broke loose – “Foi que a coisa pegou fogo”(expressão)

They all looked pretty much alike – eles todos eram muito parecidos

Tripped over – tropeçado sobre

Unwilling - indispostos

 

TEXT 12

Ladies and gentleman, on behalf of everyone here this afternoon, it is my privilege to welcome our speaker, Mr. Jeffrey Archer. It is indeed a great honour and a pleasure to have such a distinguished guest, and I am sure that, like me, you are all looking forward very much to his talk. Mr. Archer really needs no introduction - he is well known both as a politician and as a successful author. You may, however, be less aware of other talents which Mr. Archer possesses. I was intrigued to read in his entry in 'Who's Who' that he was a first class athlete in his Cambridge days, and, indeed, he ran for his country. Having been privileged to hear Mr. Archer on previous occasions, I know that we have a lively and entertaining afternoon ahead, and so, without further delay, I'm going to ask Mr. Archer to speak on the topic he has selected for this afternoon, "Things I wish I'd known when I was 18".

 


 

Vocabulary:

All leos like to be on top - todos os leoninos gostam de estar no topo(por cima, no auge)

Anger – irritar

At all – absolutamente, de maneira alguma

Awfully – terrivelmente

Boarding school – colégio interno

Bother – chatear

Cocksure – teimoso, cabeça-dura

Cricketer – jogador de críquete

Forgetfulness – esquecimento

Found out – descobriram

How valiable – quão valioso

Hunting man – caçador

Outburst - n 1 irrupção, explosão, acesso (de raiva, etc.). 2 afloramento.

Parenthood - paternidade

Reach – alcançar

Shares – ações

Sign of Leo – Signo de Leão

Streak - traço, caracter

 

TEXT 13

Is there a secret to good health? I mean, is there some way we can achieve it which is not generally known?

It certainly isn't a secret. However, there is a great deal of ignorance, even among supposedly educated people, about how to be reasonably healthy.

Well, what advice do you give, then?

Uh ... to begin with, take diet. I believe that one of the greatest dangers to health in Britain and other countries ... particularly developed countries ... is the kind of food we tend to prefer.

Such as?

Such as that great national institution, the British breakfast, for example, Ham and eggs. Or the kind of lunch so many people in this country have: sausage and chips! Or all the convenience foods like hamburgers. Or even things we regard as 'healthy', such as full-fat milk. Or cheddar cheese. The list is endless.

What's wrong with those things?

The excessive consumption of such things leads to the overproduction of cholesterol, which in turn results in heart attack.

Excuse me, but what exactly is cholesterol?

It's a ... wax-like substance ... yellowish ... and it's produced naturally in our livers. We all need some cholesterol for survival.

Well, if we need it, in what way is it bad for us?

Too much of it is bad for us. It builds up in our arteries, causing them to get narrower, so that our blood supply has difficulty in getting through ... and this, of course, can eventually end in a heart attack or stroke. The point I'm trying to make here is that, even though we all need some cholesterol in order to insulate our nerves, and to produce cell membranes and hormones, the things many of us eat and even consider healthy lead to the overproduction of cholesterol. And this is very dangerous.

How can we avoid this overproduction of cholesterol?

By cutting down our consumption of animal fats: things like red meat, cheese, eggs, and so on. And by increasing our consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, and also by eating more potatoes, rice, pasta and bread.

Pasta? Potatoes? But ... aren't such things fattening?

Nonsense. It isn't pasta, potatoes or bread that makes us fat. It's what we put on such things! Cheese, butter. Meat!

So anything we like, anything that's delicious, is bad for us. Isn't that what you're saying?

Rubbish! I'm simply saying we eat too much of these things. And there are many ways of preparing delicious food without using such large quantities of animal fats.

Last of all, what about exercise? You recently warned against certain forms of exercise, which you said could be dangerous.

What I said was that if people aren't used to getting regular and vigorous exercise, they should begin slowly, and not try to do too much at the beginning! I also said that certain games, such as squash, can be dangerous, particularly if you aren't used to playing them. A number of injuries are due to sudden, twisting movements that games like squash involve.

What kinds of exercise do you recommend, then?

Gentle jogging, swimming, cycling, brisk walking ... exercise that is rhythmic and gentle, and above all, sustained. That is, done for at least fifteen minutes uninterruptedly at least three times a week. We all need such exercise, and the fact is that too few of us get enough of it, particularly if we live in large cities and regularly use cars.

Read the following sentences in order to answer the question.

1- Answay believes that a lot of milk and cheese are good for us.

2- Cholesterol is something that helps cause heart attacks.

3- We should avoid all cholesterol.

4- Rice, pasta and potatoes do not make us fat.

5- Not all forms of exercise are healthy.

 

According to the text, is it true or false?

A) T, T, F, F, T                         B) F, F, F, T, F                       C) F, T,F, T, T                       D) T, T,F, T, F                       E) F, T, F, F, T

Vocabulary:

ahead – à frente

Delay – atraso

entry – ingresso, entrada

first class athlete – atleta de primeiro nível.

lively – alegre, vívido, intenso

looking forward – esperando ansiosamente

On behalf of – em nome de

 

TEXT 14 - QUESTIONS OF CONSCIENCE

My parents say that I'm lazy and immoral. They say all I want to do is lie about all day, wasting my time. I seem a parasite to them, totally unreliable and irresponsible. That's what they say about me. So why argue?

Vocabulary:

Brisk walking - caminhada rápida

Narrower – mais estreito

Squash - é o jogosquash

Stroke – derrame cerebral

 

TEXT 15

We arrived at 10.00 in our twinned town of Trondheim, Norway, and were met by the secretary of their Chamber of Commerce. We were given a conducted tour of the town, during which we visited the splendid cathedral, an impressive new industrial development and the Town Hall. A nearby restaurant provided a traditional Norwegian lunch, which was served by waiters and waitresses in national dress. The lunch was attended by the Mayor of Trondheim, who welcomed us most warmly. In the afternoon, a meeting was held at which a number of important issues were discussed, including the visit of a group of Trondheim local government officials to our town next year, and possible collaboration between various companies in our two towns. The meeting closed at 18.00.

Vocabulary:

Twinned town cidade que possui as mesmas características culturais e relações administrativas com outra cidade geralmente situada em outro país

A meeting was held at which a number of important issues - uma reunião foi realizada na qual várias importantes questões(assuntos)

Delivery – nesse caso, significa dicção

Nearby - próximo

 

TEXT 16

There's a lot more to listening than hearing.

Most of us have perfectly good ears.

So why, then, are we such perfectly awful listeners, listening on the average at a 25% level of efficiency?

The fact is, there's a lot more to listening than hearing.

After we hear something, we must interpret it. Evaluate it. And finally, respond to it. That's listening.

And it's during this complex process that we run into all kinds of trouble.

For example: We prejudge, sometimes even disregard a speaker based on his appearance or delivery.

We let personal ideas, emotions or prejudices distort what a person has to say.

We ignore subjects we consider too difficult or uninteresting.

And because the brain works four times faster than most people speak, we too often wander into distraction.

Yet as difficult as listening really is, it's the one communication skill we're never really taught.

Well, as a corporation with more than 80,000 employees, we at Sperry are making sure we use our ears to full advantage.

We've set up expanded listening programmes that Sperry personnel from our divisions worldwide can attend. Sales representatives. Sperry Univac computer engineers. Even the Chairman of the Board.

We're convinced that effective listening adds a special dimension to what we can do for our customers. And when you speak to someone from Sperry we think you'll be equally convinced.

It's amazing what more than two good ears can do.

SPERRY

We understand how important it is to listen.

Vocabulary:

... We've set up expanded listening programmes that sperry personnel from our divisions worldwilde can attend - ... Nós iniciamos(instalamos) programas de escuta expandidos que o conjunto de funcionários da empresa Sperry de todas as filiais(repartições) instaladas no mundo inteiro podem atender.

Chairman - presidente de uma assembléia, reunião ou organização. chairman of the board presidente do conselho de administração.

Delivery dicção, elocução Em outro contexto, pode ser: n 1 libertação, livramento, resgate, soltura. 2 modo de recitar, falar, pronunciar, elocução, dição. 3 entrega. 4 distribuição (de cartas, etc.), expedição. 5 transferência, remessa. 6 rendição. 7 delivramento, parto

 


 

TEXT 17

THE TIMES SATURDAY DECEMBER 31, 1983.

LOCKED UP 31 YEARS FOR KNOWING NO ENGLISH

 

From Trevor Fishlock - New York

 

Thirty-one years ago, David Tom was locked up in a mental institution after doctors decided he was mad. But they did not speak to him, nor he to them, because he had no English and the authorities found no one who could speak his dialect. Chinese.

Over the years he learnt only a few words of English including 'Me not crazy, why I here?'

He was right and the doctors wrong. Now, after a four year legal battle he is free and, at the age of 54, is learning to live outside an institution. He has been awarded £ 140,000 compensation. He does not talk about his 31 lost years.

Mr. Tom arrived in the United States as an illegal immigrant and worked in a restaurant kitchen in San Francisco. Later he moved to Chicago but learned no English because he lived his life within the large Chinese community there.

He became ill with tuberculosis and frightened, had a nervous breakdown. Doctors diagnosed schizophrenia, but they found nobody to talk to him. His brother, also living in Chicago, did not volunteer to help him. He, too, was an illegal immigrant and feared he would be deported if he made himself known.

So Mr. Tom spent his life in four institutions, talking with no one. It was not until 1978 that he had a conversation in his native tongue. He was taken out for a meal in a Chinese restaurant and started talking to the cook.

He told the cook his story and asked for help. The cook told the hospital worker accompanying him that in his view Mr. Tom was not mentally ill, and that started the process which led to his freedom this week.

He is now in the care of Mr. Patrick Murphy, a court-appointed guardian. Mr. Murphy, a lawyer, said yesterday: 'He is living with Chinese people who are helping to guide him back to normal life. Naturally he has been damaged by being locked up for 31 years. He is frightened that he will be sent back.'

Vocabulary:

Court-appointed guardian – protetor ou tutor indicado pelo tribunal(corte de justiça)

 

TEXT 18

BONNIE AND CLYDE

LEGEND AND REALITY

 

Almost everyone has heard about Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow, two criminals in the 1930's. They are almost romantic legends. But what was the reality?

 

Even before their violent deaths in a police ambush in May, 1934, Bonnie and Clyde were on their way to becoming legends. But since then, the legend has grown and grown. At least six different films have been made about them. Of these, the most successful was Bonnie and Clyde, starring Faye Dunaway and Warren Beatty, in 1967. The two were depicted as a romantic, rather glamorous pair who robbed banks but did not steal from poor people. Bonnie Parker ( Faye Dunaway ) was tall and beautiful. Clyde Barrow(Warren Beatty ) was handsome, an expert with a gun, and cool in danger. But was the reality?

Clyde Barrow was born in 1909 near Dallas, Texas, the sixth of eight children. His father was an illiterate farmer. As a child, Clyde was fond of capturing small birds, breaking one of their wings and then watching them try to fly. He hated school and left as soon as he could, at the age of sixteen. By the time he was seventeen, he was already in trouble with the law for stealing turkeys. Then he started stealing cars. They fascinated him. From then until his death at the age of twenty-five, he became increasingly violent, robbing small stores, sometimes killing their owners and then holding up banks. He had a tendency to panic in difficult situations. He shot wildly, killing not only policemen but innocent bystanders. More professional criminals, such as John Dillinger, despised him for 'giving a bad name to bank robbers'.

One incident which was fairly typical of his style happened on Christmas Day, 1932. He and a younger criminal, W.D. Jones, decided to steal a new car they saw parked in front of a house in the town of Temple, Texas. W.D., who was supposed to be a good mechanic, couldn't get the car started, so he and Clyde started to push it away. But the owner, a young salesman, ran out into the street and tried to stop them. Clyde shot him. By this time, W.D. had managed to start the car, and they drove off, leaving the salesman to die in front of his horrified wife and father-in-law. Shortly afterwards, they abandoned the car and escaped in another, driven by Bonnie.

Bonnie Parker was also born near Dallas, in 1910. Her parents were devout Christians who went to church every Sunday, prayed every day, and never drank or smoked. Bonnie was good at school, although one of her teachers said she was a 'a bit of a show-off'. She was very small, but despite this, could fight and beat older, bigger girls and even boys. She was very fond of small animals and went to the cinema to see love stories. She worked as a waitress for a time in Dallas, but then lost her job in the Great Depression. She met Clyde at a friend's house early in 1930. Something about him fascinated her. When he was arrested for robbery shortly afterwards, he managed to persuade her to smuggle a pistol to him in prison, even though she said she did not like guns. He used it to escape.

From that point onwards, Bonnie became more and more involved. She lived with Clyde, helped him to rob and steal, and learned how to use guns herself. On Easter Sunday, 1934, she and Clyde and a third man were sitting in their car, which was parked in a lonely side road near the town of Grapevine, Texas. Two policemen rode up on motorcycles and stopped a short distance away. They got off their bikes and began walking towards the car, casually. It was obvious that they did not know who was in the car. They had their guns in their holsters. Shots rang out from the parked car. The two policemen fell to the ground, bleeding. A farmer happened to be sitting under a tree not far away. He said he saw Bonnie get out of the car with a shotgun in her hand, and then walk over to the body of one of the policemen. He was still breathing and groaned. Bonnie fired the shotgun twice into his face and then, according to the farmer, laughed, saying that 'his head bounced just like a rubber ball'.

Less than two months later, she and Clyde were dead, killed one morning in their car by a hail of police bullets. As the car with the bodies in it was towed to a nearby town, a mob of schoolchildren surrounded it. They tore pieces of clothing and hair from the bodies and even smeared their hands in the still fresh blood. The legend had already become bigger than life.


 

Vocabulary:

A hail of police bullets – uma chuva de balas da polícia.

Bystanders – espectadores curiosos

Holding up banks - assaltando bancos

Holsters – coldres

Mob - multidão, plebe, ralé. // vt tumultuar, amotinar, cercar, atacar.

Nearby – próxima

Towed  - rebocado

TEXT 19

THE UNCLE I HARDLY KNEW

I hardly knew him. But what he did for me has helped to change my life. Perhaps I had better explain.

My name is Bruno Caselli. I was born here in London but my parents both came from Italy. My father died when I was nine. It's strange, you know, but for a time I felt as if he had somehow let me down, as if it were his fault that he had a bad heart. Children can be like that. They often behave as if their parents had only one purpose in life, and that was to be their mothers and fathers. They don't see them as real people.

I'm an only child. My mother and I were very poor for a time. She had a brother, who lived in Australia. His name was Eduardo. Uncle Eduardo came to London several times to see us. He was very fond of me and took me for walks in Hyde Park. But Australia is a long way away and we didn't see very much of him.

I went to Art School when I was eighteen but what I really wanted to study was architecture. However, it is a difficult profession to get into, and requires long training. I worked for a time as a technical illustrator but didn't make very much money from it. I even did office work for a time. When I got up to go to work in the mornings, I felt as if I were going to prison. That's how much I hated it.

One day, nine years ago, when I was twenty-two, I got a letter from a lawyer in Australia. He told me that Uncle Eduardo had died and that he had some other important news for me. He refused to say what it was until he came to London personally to see me. We met in a hotel in London a few weeks later. The news was that Uncle Eduardo had made quite a lot of money in Australia and had left it all to me. I could hardly believe it. I felt like jumping up and down for joy. But I didn't, of course.

I gave part of the money to my mother. I used the rest to study architecture and then to start my own business. I specialise in converting old factories and warehouses into living accommodation. Even on a dull day you don't get the impression that the room is dark and gloomy. The business is doing well. I have lots of contracts. But none of this would have been possible if it hadn't been for Eduardo, the uncle I hardly knew.

Vocabulary:

Chirp - n 1 chilro, gorjeio, pio. 2 cricri, cricrido. // vt+vi 1 chilrar, gorjear, trinar. 3 cricrilar. 4 estridular, dizer com estrídulo, esganiçar

Had made quite a lot of money - tinham "feito" muito dinheiro

I felt like – Eu senti vontade

 

TEXT 20 - THE PRICE OF AN EDUCATION

This article, by Jill Robinson, a journalist, first appeared in The Guardian on 1 February 1984.

BATTLE STATIONS

My father died almost eight years ago, but is only recently that I have been able to think of him without a feeling of intense dislike. Had he still been alive, it is doubtful that I would have sent him a birthday card, let alone a present. To say that we did not get on would be an understatement. The root of the trouble was his attitude to women, especially his wife and daughter, whom he regarded as little better than domestic servants. He was 52 years older than me, old enough to be my grandfather rather than parent, so there was a double generation gap.

To this was added the fact that he placed little value on a formal academic education, having himself left school at 12 and made his own way in the world. He could see no point in his daughter continuing at school beyond the minimum age ( then 15 ). In despair, my mother kept telling him that the school considered that I was university material. Father would have none of it. 'What good is a university education to a girl?' he demanded, and went on to point out that he had become a successful businessman without the benefit of any college apart from the 'University of Life'.

My refusal to leave school marked the beginning of a long feud between us. He was especially annoyed that my best subjects were geography and Latin, which he considered of no use whatsoever: the only subject in which he took any interest was my weakest, domestic science.

Every Sunday lunchtime was an ordeal for my mother and myself. Father would criticise her for having spoiled the beef ( he liked it very underdone in the centre ) and I would be scolded for failing to produce a palatable Yorkshire pudding.

Then one Sunday, my mother managed to get the beef just right, and I produced what appeared to be a perfect Yorkshire pudding. We waited for his verdict. 'The beef's not bad, ' he said, grudgingly. Encouraged by this praise, my mother asked what he thought of the pudding? 'Why, it's more like a cake. You've got the texture all wrong, my girl,' he said, glaring at me over the top of his glasses.

      From that moment on, I made up my mind never to try to please him again in any way. I realised that, according to my father, my best could never be good enough. I did not tell him when I achieved the best O-level* results in school that summer ( even gaining a good result in cookery ). I let him find out from one of his friends at the Conservative Club, who congratulated him on having such a clever daughter. He replied that he had no idea what the man was talking about and came home furious. He told me that I should have got even better results than I did.

He insisted that I should now leave school. As a concession, he said he was prepared to let me do a secretarial course, as the secretaries of today were the bosses' wives of tomorrow. I refused this offer and enrolled for A-level* courses in geography, geology and Latin.

For two years there was war in the house. Father would turn the radio up full volume so that I could not concentrate on my homework. 'She won't go to university,' he said, 'because I shall refuse to fill in the forms. 'He knew I would not be able to go without a contribution by him towards the cost of the studies.

Then his business went into liquidation and I became eligible for the full grant from the state. What was a disaster for Father was good luck for me, as a parental contribution was no longer required. Mother filled in the forms, and I left home, followed soon afterwards by my mother. However, all the years of stress and worry had undermined her health, and she died suddenly, soon after making her escape. I came back to attend her funeral. Father was there but we did not speak. I did not see him again.

* Note: Until 1987 O-levels were the first important exams taken in British secondary schools, usually at the age of 16. A-levels are higher exams, taken by students before going to university.

Vocabulary:

A long feud - uma longa briga(rixa)

Generation gap - assintonia entre duas gerações

Grant - bolsa de estudos integral

Grudgingly - de má vontade, com aversão

Palatable yorkshire pudding - saboroso pudim "yorkshire"

Would be scolded - seria xingada, repreendida

 

TEXT 21

NIGHT AND DAY

This is an artist's impression of a city of the future, perhaps a hundred or two hundred years from now.

 

In 100 years' time, there may be huge artificial satellites circling the Earth or the Sun. They will be big enough to support 100,000 or more people on them. How will life in such a 'space colony' be different from life today?

 

DR ELLA was one of the few people in the space colony who could remember what life on Earth was like. She had spent part of her childhood there. Although she was over 80, she still gave lectures at the Institute of Education and Social Development, where future teachers were trained. One day, just after she had given a talk on 'Child Education, past and present,' a student asked her if there was anything she missed when she compared life in the space colony with life on Earth.

'No very little,' she answered in a clear, strong voice. She hesitated for a moment. 'Except, perhaps the sight and sound of birds,' she added. The students looked at each other. 'Birds? What were they?' one of them asked. 'Small animals with feathers. They could fly and made strange, chirping noises, ' Dr. Ella answered.

'Oh, yes, I've read about them in the history books. But weren't they rather dirty? Didn't they carry germs?' Another student said.

Dr. Ella smiled. Yes, I suppose so. But they were beautiful and they did sing beautifully! Particularly at dawn and dusk .... Do you know what such things were? Just before day and night. Hmm. And that's something else I suppose I miss. A real night and day.'

She looked out of the window and up at the huge dome that was the space colony's 'sky'. 'The engineers had invented special chemical clouds that brought rain at regular, fixed intervals at certain times of the year, and they also developed special kinds of 'nightlight' and 'daylight' but somehow it just wasn't the same,' Dr. Ella said.

Another student raised her hand. Dr. Ella noticed there was something different about her. Her hair was longer and wasn't combed as carefully.

'But wasn't there ... isn't there ... more freedom on Earth than here?' she asked. Dr. Ella was careful to keep smiling. 'What exactly do you mean by "freedom"?' she said. 'Well, for instance, the freedom to have children without getting permission first. And the freedom to keep your children once you've had them. The freedom to live where you want to live. The freedom to choose a job for yourself and not have it chosen for you. Isn't that better?

Dr. Ella shook her head. 'Just think what happens if people are given that kind of "freedom", as you call it! Children learn bad habits from unsuitable parents. On Earth there is crime, waste and pollution. Here, of course, we have a few social undesirables who smoke and drink. But we send them to special health and education centres where they are cured. Our lives are carefully controlled, but they are also much safer and healthier. People aren't allowed to be unhappy here, as they are on Earth. No, young lady, I can assure you that I don't miss that kind of "freedom", at all!'

The student was about to say something more when one of the teachers suddenly stood up and thanked Dr. Ella for 'a most useful and informative talk'. The other students applauded politely and left without further questions. The teacher looked rather embarrassed.

'Most of the students here are well behaved. But there are always a few like the one who asked the last question. Troublemakers!' he said.

'No, not troublemakers' Dr. Ella replied. 'Just romantics. That's what's so wrong with such ideas as "freedom". They seem very attractive, very romantic at first. But it's so different in reality, isn't it? If only such people realised how dangerous such ideas really are!'

Vocabulary:

counter – agir contra

Dome - cúpula, abóboda

Feathers - penas, plumas, plumagem

Long enshinired - há longo tempo, conservado como relíquia

Unsuitable parents - pais inaptos (inadequados)

 

TEXT 22

( FUVEST-SP ) Apenas ler, pois são questões subjetivas.

The notion that psychological stress makes us more likely to fall ill is at last beginning to be taken seriously. Even the most sceptical of scientists are having to admit that there is something in this idea, long known in folklore. A new rapidly developing field of research, known as psychoimmunology, is uncovering ways in which the brain and the immune system interact to influence our susceptibility to disease.

The immune system recognises and counters foreign materials, such as bacteria and viruses, within the body. It is also involved in the body's response to some forms of cancer an in autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, where the body "attacks" itself. Susceptibility to all these types of disease therefore depends on how well the immune system works.

 

( "New Scientist", April 9, 1987.)

 

 


 

PARTE 2

 

TEXTO 1

Tadatoyo Yamamoto, 44, is a Japanese businessman who visits the United States from time to time. While he was checking into a hotel on a recent visit to Chicago, he put his briefcase on the floor. A few minutes later, Mr. Yamamoto reached down for it, but someone had stolen it. Inside the briefcase were about $900 in Japanese currency, his passport, his credit cards, photos of his family, and his return ticket to Japan.

A few days later, Mr. Yamamoto returned to Tokyo, disappointed and disillusioned about the United States. But three weeks later, he received an envelope. There was no letter, but it contained his credit cards, his airline tickets, and other personal items. The return address gave the name of Mr. Joseph Loveras in Chicago. Not long after that, Mr. Yamamoto received another envelope sent by express delivery. Inside were money orders for more than $900. It also contained a letter from Mr. Loveras that said, "I hope this money order and the items ... will restore your faith in the people of Chicago." Mr. Yamamoto was puzzled.

The next time he traveled to the United States, Mr. Yamamoto called on Mr. Loveras. Mr. Loveras was a 67-year-old disabled veteran with a total income of $493 a month.

He explained that he found the briefcase in a trash can while he was walking through a parking lot. For some reason, the thief had not discovered the money or the airline tickets in the top part of the briefcase and had just thrown the bag away. Mr. Loveras went to a bank and changed the money into money orders, and he spent his own money to send it to Japan. Mr. Yamamoto was very moved by Mr. Loveras's honesty. "I asked him why he would go to all the trouble to return everything to me. He told me that if he had not done it, it would have made him feel bad for the rest of his life." Now they have become friends, and Mr. Yamamoto visits Mr. Loveras every time he is in the United States.

Vocabulary:

BRIEFCASE – MALETA

INCOME – RENDA, SALÁRIO, PAGAMENTO, HONORÁRIO.
I ASKED HIM WHY HE WOULD GO TO ALL THE TROUBLE TO RETURN EVERYTHING TO
ME EU PERGUNTEI PARA ELE POR QUE ELE TERIA TODA A INCOMODAÇÃO PARA DEVOLVER TUDO PARA MIM.

 

TEXTO 2

Stress on the job costs American companies as much as $l50 billion a year in lower productivity, unnecessary employee sick leave, and higher medical costs. Three-quarters of the office workers today say they suffer from stress at work. Recently, psychologists and doctors have begun to study the problem more closely. They have discovered that the most stressful professions are those that involve danger and extreme pressure and those that carry a lot of responsibility without much control.

 

The signs of stress range from nervousness, anger, and frequent illness to forgetfulness and even mental problems. The best way to deal with stress is through relaxation, but sometimes the only answer is to fight back or walk away.

 

Ten jobs with high stress

inner-city high school teacher                              police officer                         miner                                                      air-traffic controller

medical intern                                           stockbroker                           journalist               clerk in complaint department

waitress/waiter                                        secretary

 

Some warning signs of stress

intestinal distress                                    rapid pulse                            frequent illness    

persistent fatigue                                     irritability                               nail biting                                              lack of concentration

increased use of alcohol and drugs                                                      hunger for sweets

 

Some ways to cope with stress

Maintain a sense of humor

Meditate

Get a massage

Exercise regularly

Ear more sensibly

Limit intake of alcohol and caffeine

Spend more time with family and friends

Say no to the boss

Quit your job

Vocabulary:

CLERK IN COMPLAINT DEPARTMENT – FUNCIONÁRIO EM DEPARTAMENTO DE RECLAMAÇÕES.

INNER-CITY – CIDADE DO INTERIOR

NAIL BITING- O ATO DE ROER AS UNHAS


TEXTO 3

Fishermen found safe and sound

 

THREE Taiwanese fishermen were rescued yesterday from a small uninhabited island in the South Pacific. The men had been lost for more than three months.

They had left Taiwan in a small fishing boat and planned to be gone for only a week. But on the fifth day they ran into a typhoon, and it badly damaged their boat. Fortunately, none of the men was hurt. After the storm passed, however, they found that the engine wouldn't start. So their boat just drifted at sea for over a month. During this time, the fishermen caught fish to eat and drank rainwater to stay alive.

Finally, the boat drifted toward a small island. When it got close enough, the men jumped overboard and swam to the shore. On the island, they found fresh fruit and vegetables to eat, and they continued to live off any fish they could catch.

The fishermen lived on the island for another two months.

Vocabulary: to live off depender de alguém ou algo do ponto de vista financeiro ou como meio de subsistência.

TEXTO 4

Is Australia the world's largest island or its smallest continent? Actually, it's both. In fact, Australia is the only country that is also a continent. Although roughly the size of the United States mainland, Australia has a population of about 16.5 million people. That makes this island nation one of the least densely populated countries.

What ethnic groups make up the Australian population? The majority of Australians are of English, Irish, Italian, Greek, Dutch, and Polish descent. However, over the past 50 years, some 4 million people from more than 120 countries have made Australia their home. This includes a large number of Asian and African immigrants. About one percent of the population is Aborigine. The Aboriginal people were the first settlers in Australia. They came from Asia about 40,000 years ago.

In addition to being the smallest continent, Australia is also the driest inhabited continent. Lush green pastures may be typical in sheep farming areas ( there are, by the way, more sheep than people in Australia ). However, much of the land, particularly in the Outback, is so arid that people are unable to live on it in its undeveloped state. That explains why most Australians live in metropolitan areas, many of which line the coast, and why Australia is considered one of the world's more urbanized countries.

Make friends with a koala at one of our wildlife parks. Explore the lush, green bushland areas of the Blue Mountains. Marvel at the coral of our magnificent Great Barrier Reef. Or be awed by our ancient landscapes and strange land formations. Whatever your interests, Australia has what you're looking for. Lining our coast are some of the world's most sophisticated cities - like Melbourne, Brisbane, and Sydney. There you can enjoy all the best in food, fashion, the arts, theater, and sports. But you won't want to miss the wonders of the vast and amazing Outback or the peaceful beauty of the Bush. Australia has a variety of unique trees, plants, and wildlife. Discover them at any of our magnificent wildlife preserves and parks.

No matter where you go in Australia, you'll find something to delight you. So surf or ski, relax on our beautiful beaches, see Aboriginal rock art painted thousands of years ago, and meet interesting people. Don't wait. It's always a good time to visit Australia.

Vocabulary:

AWED - ADMIRADO
BOARDING –
ALUNOS DE COLÉGIO INTERNO

BUSHLAND – TERRAS NÃO CULTIVADAS E NÃO DESENVOLVIDAS ( REPLETAS DE BUSH(ARBUSTOS)

DRIEST – O MAIS SECO DE TODOS

FIGHT BACK - RESISTIR. 2) RESPONDER

LINING - ALINHANDO

LUSH – SUNTUOSOS, MAGNÍFICOS. 2) LUCRATIVOS.

MAINLAND – TERRITÓRIO, CONTINENTE

REACH DOWN – ESTENDER A MÃO PARA PEGAR ALGO

STOCKBROKER – CORRETOR DE TÍTULOS. 2) CORRETOR DE VALORES.

THE OUTBACK - A PARTE DA AUSTRÁLIA QUE ESTÁ AFASTADA DAS CIDADES.

 

TEXTO 5

One night in 1828, the captain of a ship crossing the Atlantic Ocean was in his cabin when suddenly a man stepped into the room. The captain had never seen the man before. The man said nothing, but he wrote a message on the wall of the cabin and then disappeared. The message said, "Turn the ship and sail to the northwest." The captain was surprised but decided to follow the stranger's instructions. A few hours later, he saw a small ship ahead that was sinking. The captain asked his crew to see what had happened. They only found one person on board the ship. It was the same man the captain had seen in his cabin. The man explained he had just awakened from a deep sleep. In his sleep, he dreamed that he was going to be rescued.

In 1956, a young Swedish sailor on a ship at sea became bored. He wrote a message and put it in a bottle. The message gave his name and address and asked any pretty girl who found it to write to him. Two years later, an Italian fisherman found the bottle and showed the message to his daughter. Just for a joke, she wrote to the sailor. He replied, and soon they started writing to each other regularly. Then they decided to meet. Shortly after their first meeting, the sailor and the fisherman's daughter got married.

Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth president of the United States, may have received a message about his own death in a dream. One night in 1865, he had a strange dream. He dreamed he was inside the White House. A group of people were standing around a coffin in the East Room of the White House. Many of them were crying. "Who is dead?" he asked. "The president," someone answered. "He was killed by an assassin." A few days after this, on April l4th, Lincoln was shot and killed while he was watching a play at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C.

Vocabulary:

BORED- CHATEADO

COFFIN – CAIXÃO(DE DEFUNTO)

TEXTO 6

    The first notable uses of spices and herbs in very early times were in medicine, in the making of holy oils and unguents, and as aphrodisiacs. Priests employed them in worship, incantations, magical rites, and rituals.

    Ancient books of herbs, including those of Cathay, Sumer, Assyria, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, testify to the use of spices and herbs in the treatment of diseases. Hippocrates, Galen, and Pedanius Dioscorides, among others, employed them. In the first century of the Christian Era, Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, comments a lot about the efficacy and healing powers of spices and Herb's in the treatment of just about every disease known to his days. With moderation, they were filtered down into the Middle Ages and are still known today.

Vocabulary:

CATHAY – NOME ARCAICO OU LITERÁRIO PARA O PAÍS “CHINA”

FILTERED DOWN - FILTRADOS

HEALING - CURANDO. 2) CURATIVOS, QUE TEM PODER DE CURA

HOLY – SAGRADO

SPICES – TEMPEROS

TEXTO 7

Every year about seventeen million animals are used in laboratory experiments. But in many countries today, a difficult question is being asked: Do we have the right to use animal this way?

The case for using animals in research

The use of animals in medical research has many practical benefits. Animal research has enabled researchers to develop treatments for many diseases, such as heart disease and depression. It would not have been possible to develop vaccines for diseases like smallpox and polio without animal research. Every drug anyone takes today was tried first on animals.

Future medical research is dependent on the use of animals. Which is more important: the life of a rat or that of a three-year-old child?

Medical research is also an excellent way of using unwanted animals. Last year, over twelve million animals had to be killed in animal shelters because nobody wanted them as pets.

The case against using animals in research

The fact that humans benefit cannot be used to justify using animals in research any more than it can be used to justify experimenting on other humans. Animals suffer a lot during these experiments. They are forced to live in small cages, and they may be unable to move.

Much of the research that is carried out is unnecessary anyway.

Animals have the same rights as humans do to be able to move freely and not to have pain or fear forced on them. Researchers must find other ways of doing their research, using cell culture and computer modeling. There should be no animals in research laboratories at all.

Vocabulary:

CARRIED OUT – CONDUZIDA. 2) REALIZADA

SHELTER – ABRIGO

TEXTO 8

Dong-feng (East Wind) Kindergarten is a preschool run by a city in southwest China. It has 270 three to six-year-old children and 60 staff members. Three-quarters of Dongfeng's children are day students who attend school from about 8 A.M. to 6 P.M., Monday through Saturday. The others are boarding students who go home only on Wednesday evenings and on weekends.

On a typical day, school starts at 7:30 A.M. with a breakfast of steamed buns. After breakfast, when the day students arrive, the teachers lead the children in morning exercises followed by a song. Then the children sit down and the teachers hand out wooden blocks.

Ms. Xiang says: "Just pay attention to the picture of the building and build it. We must use our minds, right? Build according to order." The children begin to work. Ms. Wang says: "Keep still! There is no need to talk while you are working."

At 10:00 it's time for the children to go to the bathroom. After that, they play a game of tag. At 10:45, it's bath time for the boarding students. Three or four at a time, the children bathe in large tubs. The children return to the classroom, and Ms. Wang drills them in addition and subtraction.

Later, lunch is delivered from the central kitchen. Ms. Xiang reminds the children to eat in silence and not to waste any food. After lunch, it's time to go to the dormitory for a nap. Nap time lasts from noon to 2:30. While the children rest, the teachers catch up on paperwork, eat, and relax in the classroom next door.

After returning to their classroom, the children are taught to recite a story. Then they move outside for some relay races. At 5 P.M., the children have supper - a meal of meat, vegetables, and rice. At 6 P.M., the parents arrive to pick up their children. Inside, the boarders listen to music before getting ready for bed. By 7:45, the children are all in bed, and by 8:00 all are quiet and appear to be asleep.

Vocabulary:

BOARDING STUDENTS – ALUNOS DE COLÉGIO INTERNO

CATCH UP ON – FAZER ALGO QUE NÃO TINHA SIDO POSSÍVEL FAZER ANTES.

DRILLS- TREINAR
INNER-CITY HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER-COLÉGIO
INTERNO DE SEGUNDO GRAU

RELAY RACES – CORRIDAS DE REVEZAMENTO

STAFF GRUPO DE FUNCIONÁRIOS. 2) ACESSORIA DE UMA EMPRESA.

STEAMED BUNS – ESPÉCIE DE PÃO DOCE COZINHADO NO VAPOR

TAG – PERGUNTAS. 2) CHARADAS

TEXTO 9

A great place to shop

I love shopping in Tokyo. And one of my favorite stores there is Parco. Well it's actually four stores in one. Parco is very popular with young people. You feel middle aged there if you're over 30! Parco is known for its incredible window displays and fascinating boutiques. It even has its own theaters: you can see a movie or a play when you need a break from shopping. And what I like most is that no one bothers you. You can wander around as much as you like.

More than the menu

The restaurant I enjoy the most when I'm in London is the Grill Room in the Savoy. It has excellent British as well as French food. It's a very elegant place, and it's always full of interesting people, which is why I like to go there. You're sure to see a duke or duchess, a well-known politician or TV personality, or a beautiful model or a movie star. The restaurant reminds me of what London must have been like in the 1920s.

A wild week

One of the most interesting events in the U.S. is the Mardi Gras in New Orleans. It's a week when people go crazy. The great thing is that there's something different to do and see every day. There are parades, luncheons, pageants, and about ninety carnival balls. And when you get tired of the carnival, you can listen to all kinds of music, from Fats Domino to Andy Gibb, as well as some of New Orleans' famous jazz musicians.

A ride you'll never forget

The train ride from Cuzco to Machu Picchu in Peru is one of the most spectacular in the world. It's on a narrow-gauge railway and travels along the crest of the Andes Mountains. The views are unforgettable. Cuzco is very high, about 12,000 feet, and it's an incredible place. It's the center of Inca culture. Throughout the trip, you can see all sorts of interesting people, and then you finally arrive at the Lost City of the lncas.

Vocabulary:

CARNIVAL BALLS BAILES DE CARNAVAL

CREST - CRISTA

LUNCHEON – TERMO FORMAL PARAALMOÇO” ( LUNCH )

NARROW GAUGE RAILWAY – FERROVIA DE TRILHOS COM MEDIDA(BITOLA) ESTREITA

PAGEANT – CORTEJO OU DESFILO SUNTUOSO. 2) REPRESENTAÇÃO TEATRAL.

WANDER – PASSEAR, VAGUEAR, PERAMBULAR.

 

TEXTO 10

For many years, people believed that the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus discovered America. But, in fact, others had reached America before him. Thousands of years ago, Asians crossed the Bering Strait to Alaska and then moved through North America and on to South America. Others have claimed that travelers from Europe and China also visited America. According to some people, sailors from China crossed the Pacific to Mexico in A.D. 459. Irish explorers also may have visited America in the ninth and tenth centuries. Irish people living in Iceland before the Norsemen, who came from Scandinavia, reached it in the ninth century. They may have sailed from Iceland to America after the Norsemen arrived.

The Norsemen themselves may also have visited America. They were used to sailing long distances in their ships. Some Norse stories tell of a Norseman called Bjarni Herjolfsson who visited America in A.D. 986. Another Norseman named Leif Ericsson probably lived for a time in Newfoundland in Canada but then returned to Greenland. However, the first Western explorer we can be sure about was Christopher Columbus. He left Spain on August 3, 1492, and on October l2th he arrived in the Bahamas. Columbus thought he had arrived in the Indies (the name then used for Asia). That is why he called the people Indians. He spent many weeks sailing around the Caribbean and then went back to Spain. He made several more voyages to the New World, though he never actually landed in North America.

So, who was America named after? It was named after another Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, who was friend of Columbus's and who later explored the coastline of the New World.

Vocabulary:

ICELAND - ISLÂNDIA

NORSEMAN - NORMANDO. 2) NORUEGUÊS. 3) ESCANDINAVO ANTIGO

 

TEXTO 11

 

In everyday language, we talk of "my place", "our home" and "their neighborhood." We think of our home as our own private territory. People need a place of their own, where they can get away from others and feel a sense of being in charge. Even within families, we attach ourselves to personal territories; for example, the kitchen tends to "belong" to the one who prepares the meals. We like to have our own workrooms and our own bedrooms, or at least our own side of the bed! People personalize their territories to emphasize where one ends and another begins.

Within the home, territorial boundaries depend on the level of intimacy of different rooms and spaces. On the doorstep and in the front hallway, we meet strangers and people making deliveries. Friends and relatives are invited into the living room or kitchen, but rarely are people from outside the immediate family admitted to an adult's bedroom.

Personalizing our territories shows how attached we feel to them. A study of American university dormitories showed how personalization of students' spaces was related to their sense of belonging to the university as a whole. The investigators counted the number of personal items in the students' rooms, such as posters, stereos, and rugs, and found that the students who dropped out had the least number of personal items on display.

The same thing is true of neighborhoods. Look around you in your own neighborhood. Look at the houses or apartments that show personalization: new fences and boundary markers, door colours that stand out from the rest, or freshly painted window frames. Noting how territories are marked should allow you to predict who is most likely to stay and become involved in the community.

When getting established in a new town or country, uprooted people are likely to put up pictures of their old home. The greater the number of local objects they put on display, however, the more likely they are to stay and form relationships in their new community.

 

Vocabulary:

ATTACH – APEGAR-SE. 2) VINCULAR 3) AFEIÇOAR

DOORSTEP - DOOR-STONE – Noun - 1 LAJE OU PISO EM FRENTE DA PORTA DE ENTRADA. 2 LIMIAR, SOLEIRA DA PORTA

DROPPED OUT – CAEM FOR A. 2) DEIXAM DE FREQUENTAR

IN CHARGE ENCARREGADO. 2) RESPONSÁVEL POR ALGO

STAND OUT FROM THE REST – DESTACAM-SE EM RELAÇÃO AO RESTO

UPROOTED – DESARRAIGADA. 2) EXTIRPADA 3) EXPULSAS

 

TEXTO 12

The use of fire is spread throughout history. It started when a lightning produced the first fire. The earliest user was Peking man, around 500,000 BC It was only around 7,000 BC that the Neolithic man acquired firemaking techniques. Even then it was more convenient to keep fire burning permanently than to re-ignite it.

The importance of fire in the ancient world is emphasized by the sacred fires of many religious rituals and myths, such as that of Prometheus. The myth tells that Prometheus stole the fire from the gods and gave it to man.

Vocabulary:

PEKING MAN – HOMEM DE PEQUIM

TEXTO 13

Disposing of the garbage we produce every day is a major problem in cities around the world. In the United States, over 160 million tons of garbage are produced every year. Ten percent is recycled, ten percent is burned, and the rest is put in landfills. But finding land for new landfills is becoming more difficult.

A city that has solved this problem in an unusual way is Machida, in Tokyo, Japan. They have developed a totally new approach to garbage disposal. The key to the operation is public cooperation. Families must divide their garbage into six categories:

 

l   garbage that can be easily burned ( that is, combustible garbage ), such as kitchen and garden trash

2  noncombustible garbage, such as small electrical appliances, plastic tools, and plastic toys

3  products that are poisonous or that cause pollution, such as batteries and fluorescent lights

4  bottles and glass containers that can be recycled

5 metal containers that can be recycled

6 large items, such as furniture and bicycles

 

The items in categories l to 5 are collected on different days. ( Large items are only collected upon request.) Then the garbage is taken to a center that looks like a clean new office building or hospital. Inside the center, special equipment is used to sort and process the garbage. Almost everything can be reused: garden or kitchen trash becomes fertilizer; combustible garbage is burned to produce electricity; metal containers and bottles are recycled; and old furniture, clothing, and other useful items are cleaned, repaired, and resold cheaply or given away. The work provides employment for handicapped persons and gives them a chance to learn new skills.

Nowadays, officials from cities around the world visit Machida to see whether they can use some of these ideas and techniques to solve their own garbage disposal problems.

Vocabulary:

APPROACH ABORDAGEM

HANDICAPPED – INCAPACITADAS. 2) DESAVANTAJADAS
LOOKS LIKE A CLEAN NEW OFFICE BUILDING OR HOSPITAL – PARECE UM PRÉDIO DE ESCRITÓRIOS LIMPO OU UM HOSPITAL LIMPO

LANDFILLS – ATERROS

POISONOUS – VENENOSO

 

TEXTO 14

On October 21, 1978, Australian pilot Frederick Valentich, age 20, took off from Melbourne and headed toward a small island. It was the young man's first solo night flight over water. It was a still, clear evening, and from his Cessna aircraft Valentich had a perfect view of the sky above and the sea below.

Shortly after taking off, however, Valentich reported to flight controllers in Melbourne that he was being followed by a UFO. "It's a long shape," he reported, "with a green light, sort of metallic-like, all shiny on the outside." A few minutes later, he told the controllers, "That strange aircraft is hovering on top of me again." After that, Valentich stopped talking. For the next fourteen seconds the traffic controllers heard a strange ringing sound. Then silence. Valentich and his plane never reached the island, and no trace of him or his aircraft was ever found.

    Several members of the public reported seeing strange phenomena in the sky over Melbourne that night. An amateur photographer produced a photo of what looked like a large object surrounded by vapor. A NASA scientist, Richard Haines, heard about the story and began an investigation. He analyzed Valentich's voice on tape and the strange sound heard at the end of the tape. But he concluded that it was "unidentifiable." He decided that there were four possible explanations for the mystery surrounding Valentich's disappearance: (1) Valentich might have become confused and disoriented while flying his plane and finally crashed; (2) he could have staged a deliberate hoax; (3) he could have been the victim of a top secret advanced weapons test; or (4) he may have been captured by the occupants of a UFO.

Haines plans to continue with his investigation of the case until the mystery is solved.

Vocabulary:

HEADED TOWARD – DIRIGIR-SE PARA, RUMAR EM DIREÇÃO A

HOVERING – PAIRANDO. 2) ESTANDO SUSPENSO. 3) FLUTUANDO.

STAGED A DELIBERATE HOAX – ENCENADO UMA BRINCADEIRA DELIBERADA


TEXTO 15-

(I) Read this information about inns in North America and in Japan. Then write two similarities and two differences between them.

Country inns have become extremely popular in the United States and Canada in the last few years. Most are found in beautiful rural settings and are often old houses or farmhouses with no more than five to fifteen rooms. They offer the traveler a different travel experience. No two inns are alike, and no two rooms are alike in most inns. In many inns, the rooms do not have private bathrooms. Instead, there is a bathroom on each floor for guests to use. Only a few inns have televisions or telephones in the rooms. Most inns include breakfast with the cost of a room, but other meals are not included.

Japanese inns are different from hotels in other countries. These inns have always been popular with the Japanese, and now foreign tourists like to stay in them because they are comfortable and are usually in attractive locations in the countryside. Also, the inns are small and friendly places: Guests are greeted at the entry way, shown to a room, and immediately given a warm cup of tea or a soft drink. Rooms do not include individual baths; however, guests are invited to enjoy the communal baths - one for women only and the other just for men. In the evening, an excellent meal (included in the price of the room) is served in the guest's room. After dinner, the hotel staff remove the dishes and lay futons (which are folding mattresses) on the floor for sleeping. A whole family can stay together in one room.

Vocabulary:

FOLDING MATTRESSES – COLCHÕES DOBRADOS

GREETED – SAUDADOS. 2) CUMPRIMENTADOS 3) RECEBIDOS(ACOLHIDOS)

LAY FUTONS – ESTENDER COLCHÕES DE VIAGEM

POURS OUT – DESPEJAR. 2) VAZAR

TYPHOON – TUFÃO

TEXTO 16

Home Schooling

 

Although education is compulsory in the United States, it is not compulsory for all children to get their education at school. A number of parents believe that they can provide a better education for their children at home. Children who are educated at home are known as "home-schoolers." There are about 300,000 home-schoolers in the United States today. Some parents prefer teaching their children at home because they do not believe that public schools teach the correct religious values; others believe they can provide a better educational experience for their children themselves. Interestingly, results show that home-schooled children tend to do better than average on national tests in reading and math.

David Guterson is an American writer. He and his wife teach their three children themselves. Guterson says that his children learn very differently from children in a regular school. Learning starts with the children's interests and questions. For example, when there is heavy snowfall on a winter day, it may start a discussion or reading about climate, snow removal equipment, Alaska, polar bears, and winter tourism. Or a spring evening, when the family is watching the stars, is a good time for setting up a telescope and asking questions about satellites, comets, meteors, and the space program. At dinner, if the Brazilian rain forests are on the news, it could be a perfect time to get out the atlas and encyclopaedia. Then there might be two hours or more of eating, asking questions, looking up answers, discovering how rain forests influence the climate, what the "greenhouse effect" is, how deserts are formed, and how the polar ice caps affect ocean levels.

Although home schooling offers an experience that is often more interesting than regular schools, critics point out that home-schoolers miss out on many important things. The home-schooler is an outsider who, because he or she never attended school, might be uncomfortable mixing with other people in adult life. Critics also say that most parents are not well qualified to teach their children and may pass on their own narrow views to their children. However, most parents don't have the time or desire to teach their children at home, so schools will continue to be where most children get their formal education.

 

TEXTO 17

Culture Shock!

Each society has its own beliefs, attitudes, customs, behaviors, and social habits. These give people a sense of who they are, how they should behave, and what they should or should not do. These "rules" reflect the "culture" of a country.

People become conscious of such rules when they meet people from different cultures. For example, in some cultures, being on time can mean turning up several hours late for an appointment, even for a business meeting; in others, 3 P.M. means 3 P.m. Also, the rules about when to eat vary from culture to culture. Many North Americans and Europeans are used to having three mealtimes a day and organize their timetable around them. In some countries, on the other hand, people often do not have strict rules like this - people eat when they want to, and every family has its own timetable.

When people visit or live in a country for the first time, they are often surprised at the differences that exist between their own culture and the culture in the other country. The most common way of comparing two cultures is in terms of their differences - not their similarities. For some people, travelling abroad is an exciting experience; for others though, cultural differences make them feel uncomfortable, frightened, or even insecure. This is known as "culture shock." Here are several things to do in order to avoid culture shock.

 

Learning how to adapt to a new culture

 

l   Avoid quick judgments; try to understand people in another culture from their own point of view.

2  Become more aware of what is going on around you, and why.

3 Don't think of your cultural habits as "right" and other people's as "wrong."

4 Be willing to try new things and try for the first time, they are often to have new experiences.

5  Try to appreciate and understand other people's values.

6  Think about your own culture and how it influences your attitudes and actions.

7  Avoid having negative stereotypes about foreigners and their cultures.

Show respect, sincerity, interest, acceptance, and concern for things that are important to other people.

 

Understanding and appreciating cultural differences can help people avoid misunderstandings, develop friendships more easily, and feel more comfortable when travelling or living abroad.

TEXTO 18

Puerto Rico is a good place to visit if you like fantastic scenery. It has everything - beautiful beaches, mountains, rivers, and forests. There are lots of things to do during the daytime. You can walk around the old town of San Juan, explore the caves in the mountains, or go swimming and scuba diving in the Caribbean or in the Atlantic Ocean. In the evening, you can eat wonderful food and listen to salsa music. You can go to Puerto Rico any time of the year because the sun shines most of the time, and the weather is usually great!

 

1. SUPERSTITION

There is evidence of superstitions among ancient civilizations. But this is not something of the past. Superstition is part of our modern world, too.

Some very old beliefs are present among us today: a broken mirror, for example, means seven years of bad luck. A black cat brings you bad luck when it crosses your way. Some people never walk under a ladder because it also means bad luck. There is a very curious belief among New Yorkers: 13 is a sign of bad luck and many buildings have no thirteenth floor.

There is also a place for good luck in superstition. Some charms and beliefs are popular because they bring good luck. A horseshoe, for example, or a four-leaf clover are popular good luck charms around the world. In Brazil, it is very difficult to find a ticket of the Federal Lottery with a final 13 - this is the lucky number. There is another curious belief in Brazil: three kisses on the face of a single girl bring marriage.

Superstition is certainly part of the past, present, and future life of man. For some people, it is ignorance; for others, it is an important part of their lives.

 

TEXTO 19

Osaka - Japan's "Second City"

 

Osaka, Japan's second biggest city (after Tokyo), may not seem like a very interesting city at first. It looks as though it spreads out in every direction without any plan or organization, and its streets and train stations are full of people in a hurry. Yet Osaka is an unusual city with a fascinating past and an exciting future.

Locals think of Osaka as a series of neighborhoods centering on northern Osaka (Kita-ku) and southern Osaka (Minami-ku). These two districts are very different from each other.

Kita-ku is the international face of the city with skyscrapers, big hotels, and new department stores. It's the modern side of Osaka. Here you can find the new City Hall as well as many other striking modern buildings. This is the Osaka that looks like many other international cities.

 

Minami-ku is more open and friendly. Here you find theaters, coffee shops, game halls, boutiques, and restaurants. The most famous area in Minamiku is Dotombori. At night, it seems that the entire city comes here: fashionable office workers, tired and thirsty business people, university students, and teenagers with wild hairstyles. Music pours out of speakers, and sidewalk hawkers sell everything from stuffed animals to handmade jewellery. There are also quieter areas with beautiful temples and shrines where age-old ceremonies and festivals take place throughout the year.

 

So, although Osaka is not as famous as Tokyo, it's more than a big, bustling city. It's also a warm, beautiful place - inside and outside.

Vocabulary:

BUSTLING – BARULHENTA. 2) CHEIA DE ALVOROÇO

MUSIC POURS OUT OF SPEAKERS - A MÚSICA BROTA DOS FALANTES

SHRINE - N 1 RELICÁRIO. 2 TÚMULO DE UM SANTO. 3 SANTUÁRIO. 4 LUGAR SAGRADO OU HISTÓRICO. // VT GUARDAR EM RELICÁRIO, SANTIFICAR

SIDEWALK HAWKERS SELL EVERYTHING – E VENDEDORES AMBULANTES VENDEM DE TUDO

STUFFED ANIMALS ANIMAIS DE BRINQUEDO(PARA CRIANÇAS)

 

TEXTO 20. READING FOR INFORMATION

The Smithsonian Institution is an independent federal establishment devoted to public education, basic research, and national service in the arts, science, and history. Its 12 museums and the National Zoo possess more than 70 million objects and specimens. About one percent of the total is on public display, with the rest used for research.

 

TEXTO 21. COW THREAT

Cows are walking machines. They transform raw materials ( grass, hay, water, and feed ) into finished products ( milk, beef, leather, and so on).

As any factory, cows produce waste. Solid waste is eliminated through the rear end of these "complex machines", and is used as fertilizer.

The fermentation process in their four stomachs produces gas. These walking machines have two chimneys: one in the front end, the other in the rear end. Gaseous emissions through the front end chimney are called burps. Cows burp a lot. Every minute and a half. These burps release methane gas. Methane is dangerous to the planet because it contributes to the greenhouse effect.

The world population is growing very fast. That means there are more people eating beef. Consequently, there is more cattle - more walking machines - producing more methane gas.

This is the problem, but very few people want to change their eating habits. What about you?

Vocabulary:

CATTLE – GADO

CHIMNEY - CHAMINÉS

HAY – FENO

LEATHER - COURO

RAW – CRU 2) BRUTO

RAW MATERIALS MATÉRIAS BRUTAS

REAR – A PARTE TRASEIRA, O FUNDO

THAT MEANS – ISTO SIGNIFICA

 

 


 

PARTE 3

 

TEXTO 1. FUJITSU TALKS TELECOMMUNICATION

 

Fujitsu's "Image Phone" is a remarkable device. It combines the power of computer and the technology of the telephone. Its electro-luminescent screen makes it possible to talk and send handwritten messages at the same time.

 

"We are creating a telephone that can send you a letter."

FUGITSU - Japan's number one computer maker. And a world leader in telecommunications technology.

Choose the correct alternative.

1. "And a world leader in telecommunications technology". This sentence means that:            R-A

A) Fujitsu has the most advanced technology.                                                 D) Fujitsu telephones are better than American ones.

B) Fujitsu produces computers and telephones.                                                E) Japanese can send letters to world leaders.

C) Japanese technology is the best in the world.

2. Check a synonym for the word remarkable. R-E

A) simple.  B) ordinary.           C) complex.            D) common.           E) extraordinary.

3. Check the wrong translation for the word device.          R-D

A) aparelho.              B) mecanismo.      C) dispositivo.      D) ferramenta.       E) instrumento.

 

TEXTO 2. JEANS

Young people all round the world have many things in common - their music, their language, their ideas. However, there is nothing more universal than jeans.

Jeans are not a privilege of modern generations. In the 15th century, the sailors from Genoa were the first to wear heavy cotton pants. They needed those durable and practical cotton pants to work on their ships. Our modern term jeans comes from the Genoese sailors.

Later, during the Gold Rush, Levi Strauss arrived in California with a roll of heavy canvas under his arm. He created the blue jeans and made a fortune.

Until World War II, blue jeans were popular among farmers and cowboys, construction workers and people in the country and small towns of the United States.

In the forties, some artists and young people wore blue jeans because they were practical, cheap, and kind of political protest. Then came the fifties with Marlon Brando, James Dean and motorcycle movies. Jeans became a synonym of "bad" and schools banned them.

In the sixties, jeans became very popular not only in the USA but all over the world. They were a symbol of youth. Today, however, they are no longer a privilege of a generation or a class: everybody wears jeans.

 

TEXTO 3. THE WATER WE DRINK

The water we drink usually comes from reservoirs, lakes, or rivers. A large number of cities uses river water and dumps it back into the river. Sometimes another city downstream uses the same water. This water may be badly polluted with chemicals and pathogenic bacteria. Many different chemical treatments are necessary to make it safe and palatable.

Many communities add some form of fluorine to their water. Fluorine in concentrations of 0.7 to 1.0 ppm ( parts per million ) can significantly reduce tooth decay in children.

Smaller communities usually obtain water from wells. Even they have problems because sometimes the ground water is contaminated by nitrates. These nitrates come from agricultural fertilizers and from the decomposition of organic waste.

What can we do? We can fight for clear water and convince our neighbors to do the same. We can demand an end to water pollution by industries and cities. And, finally, we must know how to use the water of the earth because that is all the water we have.

Vocabulary:

DEMAND – PEDIR, EXIGIR. 2) PLEITEAR

 

TEXTO 4. A MYSTERIOUS CASE

 

Last night the famous detective Alan Rockjaw was at home. He was reading the newspaper and calmly smoking his pipe when the telephone rang. It was Inspector Tennison, the chief of police. He was looking for help because he had a mysterious murder case to solve.

The scene of the crime was Joe's Restaurant. Rockjaw and Inspector Tennison drove quickly and saw a dead man on the floor. His name was Frank Brady.

Joe, the owner of the restaurant, tried to help Rockjaw, but he was too nervous. However, he gave one important piece of information. "The murderer put his hand against the wall when he shot Mr.", he said.

There were footsteps on the floor, but no signs of a holdup. There was money in the cash register and used glasses and plates on the counter. No other useful clue.

Later on, Joe said, "I remember now. Archbald, Boris, Charlie, and David were here at the moment of the murder. I was counting the money."

That was all.

Vocabulary:

CLUE - PISTA

HOLDUP - ASSALTO À MÃO ARMADA

 

TEXTO 5. MOON CRATERS

The moon has attracted man's attention since the beginning of civilization. Ancient Greeks discovered the influence of the moon upon the tides. Poets have looked at the moon with romantic eyes. Space scientists have not only studied it with their telescopes, but have also sent astronauts there. However, they have not found out all the answers to the mysteries of the moon. The origin of moon craters, for example, is still obscure.

According to one theory, thousands of meteors have crashed against the surface of the moon. The impact of these crashes has formed the craters. They are pits and depressions on the lunar surface. They have many sizes and forms. Some scientists have tried to prove this theory with plaster. They dropped objects into wet plaster, trying to reproduced the formation of craters. Unfortunately, they have not been successful.

Other scientists disagree about this theory. For them, the craters have appeared because of eruptions either of gas or lava. English physicist Robert Hook said, "The craters are the solidified residues of enormous bubbles".

This dispute has not ended yet. It has been very difficult to prove theses theories. Scientists have already progressed a lot, but poets can be glad - the moon is still a romantic mystery to man.

Vocabulary:

TIDES – MARÉS

WET PLASTER – EMPLASTRO, GESSO OU REBOCO UMEDECIDO

 

TEXTO 6. WOMEN

Women have had a secondary role in society! They have always stayed home doing housework. They have been cooking, washing, and cleaning for centuries. Was that what they really wanted? Nobody asked them.

The street has always been men's territory. Men have been going out of the house day after day to get money. This gave them economic independence and, in most cases, a feeling of superiority.

But then came the 20th century and things have been changing gradually. One of the most significant changes for women happened with the suffragettes*. They fought for the women's right to vote. Then, step by step, women have been conquering new rights and engaging in new movements. Nowadays we see more women competing with men in professional fields. Some countries have women as presidents and prime ministers.

There are also many feminist leagues and clubs fighting the so-called "macho society". Their slogans say, "Women are as capable as men", "Men are less energetic than women", etc. Of course these are just slogans, but they reveal deep changes there are fewer women doing housework. They are out in the street - as much as men - fighting for economic independence and for a more decent social position.

* Suffragette: The women who fought to the feminine vote.

TEXTO 7. AUTOMOBILES

The world has changed a lot since the last decades of the 19th century: with the invention of the automobile, places have become closer and man has traveled farther.

In the 20th century, automobiles brought deep changes to the cities. Cars crowded the streets and took the place of the old carriages.

The 50's and the 60's represented the greatest days of the automobile. But an oil crisis occurred during the 70's. Gasoline became more expensive. Large automobile companies worried about it and began to work on the "car of the future".

Cars in the future will be more economical, lighter, and smaller than they are today. They will use different forms of energy: electric, solar, and many others. These new forms of energy will cause less pollution than gasoline and will be cheaper.

TEXTO 8. THE BIG BANG

The big Bang Model is a theory that tries to explain the evolution of the universe. According to this theory, at some time between ten and twenty billion years ago, all matter and energy were compressed into a small ball only a few kilometers in diameter. It was, in effect, one atom that contained all the components of the entire universe in the form of pure energy.

Then, at a moment in time that astronomers refer to as T-0 (T equals zero),the ball exploded, hurling energy into space. Expansion occurred. As the energy cooled, most of it became matter in the form of protons, neutrons, and electrons. These original particles combined to form hydrogen and helium, and continued to expand. This expansion of matter formed galaxies with stars and planets.

Vocabulary:

COOLED - RESFRIAVA

HURLING – ARREMESSANDO, LANÇANDO

 

TEXTO 9. THE DESERT LIVES

One-fifth of the land surface of the earth is occupied by deserts, and holds 700 million people - 14% of the total population of the planet.

The world is now aware of a phenomenon called desertification - the expansion of deserts. A United Nations Conference on Desertification in 1977 recommended actions to combat this trend: correct irrigation methods, crop rotation, reforestation and controlled grazing.

Continuous application of these actions may help to assure the future of these threatened regions, but their fate really depends on the choices of man. ( Unicef Agenda )

Vocabulary:

GRAZING – PASTO 2) PASTOREAÇÃO

 

TEXTO 10. EINSTEIN

He was a modern magician. His astonishing notions of space and time changed man's perception of the universe forever. He fathered relativity and introduced the atomic age with his formula E - mc2.* Yet his formidable reputation never spoiled his simple humanity. He spoke courageously against social injustice. In his later years, dressed in loose clothes, his white hair untidy, he helped youngsters with their geometry homework. He was an old man who still loved to sail, play Mozart on the violin, and write poems. He died a little more than a quarter of century ago, but there are few people who do not recognize the face or name of Albert Einstein.

The magnitude of Einstein's theories was not the result of his individual work. Others had worked before him and contributed to his formulations. One example is Copernicus, from whom we learned about the heliocentric theory. Kepler, who was a German physicist, provided a geometric description of the movement of planets. Isaac Newton formulated the law of universal gravitation.

Vocabulary:

HE FATHERED RELATIVITY – ELE FOI O PAI DA RELATIVIDADE (ELE CRIOU A TEORIA DA RELATIVIDADE)

TEXTO 11. GYPSIES

Gypsies are nomad people who came from the Indian subcontinent. They started westward in the year 1,000 AD Nowadays there are about 8 million gypsies all over the world.

Gypsies, ciganos, gitanes, zingare, bohemians are some of the names we use to call this nomad people. Each of their groups has a natural leader who is not hereditary. The most important member in the family, the mother, has authority over her children and owns the family's properties. The same principle applies to the tribe, which has the tribal mother - the "puri dai", guardian of the moral code. A council of "earls" judges every gypsy who breaks the law. They punish the most serious cases with banishment from the tribe.

Throughout the centuries there has always been a variety of traditional occupations and crafts among the gypsies. Music and dance, as well as road shows, fairs, and circus are part of their tradition. The men have been housekeepers and craftsmen; the women, fortunetellers. Yet, they were forced to adapt their way of life to the changes of their economic situation. Some have totally abandoned nomadism; others have temporarily settled somewhere.

Vocabulary:

CRAFTSMEN – ARTESÃOS, ARTÍFICES

EARL – CONDE

SETTLE – ESTABELECER-SE, FIXAR RESIDÊNCIA. 2) ASSENTAR

 

TEXTO 12. I HAVE A DREAM

1.                 I have a dream

                    That one day this nation will rise up

                    And live out the true meaning of its creed:

                    "We hold these truths to be self-evident,

                    That all men are created equal."

2.                 I have a dream

                    That my four little children

                    Will one day live in a nation

                    Where they will not be judged

                    By the color of their skin

                    but by the content of their character.

3.                 This is our hope. ( Martin Luther King, Jr., from a speech in Washington, D.C., in 1963.)

Vocabulary:

LIVE OUT (SOMETHING)– EXPERIMENTAR ALGO QUE REALMENTE SE DESEJAR FAZER. 2) VIVER EM UMA DETERMINADA SITUAÇÃO ATÉ O FIM DA VIDA.

 

TEXTO 13. ANESTHESIA

There are different methods of anesthesia. One of them is inhalation. When a gas, such as nitrous oxide, or a vapor such as ether is inhaled, it quickly reaches the air cells of the lung - the alveoli. Depending on the solubility and concentration, a certain amount of the anesthetic dissolves in the blood that passes through the lung. Once in the bloodstream, the anesthetic is carried to the brain.

Depending on the amount of anesthetic, different stages of anesthesia can be produced: the first stage, analgesia, is an absence of the sense of pain; the second is excitement, both physical and mental; the third stage, surgical, brings a complete loss of consciousness and muscle relaxation.

TEXTO 14. WATCH YOUR BODY

How are diseases acquired? Some are caused by direct and visible injuries to the body. Others ( 70%, some physicians claim ) are psychosomatic. Other diseases are caused by contagion.

The first type, caused by direct injuries to the body, can be avoided in part: hygiene and carefulness may prevent the most evident causes. Psychosomatic diseases are those induced into our body by emotional states; so, if we keep our emotional balance, we can prevent many of them. Finally, contagious diseases are a matter of information and intelligence. The most important contagious disease in our times is AIDS. Everyone know the ways of contagion, then it is up to each one to avoid it.

 

TEXTO 15. GOD'S HEAVEN

Of course you expect to go to Heaven when you die. We all do. As a matter of fact, everyone hopes to go to Heaven and meet the other members of the family who have passed on.

Take my advice: make a reservation. Heaven is becoming very crowded, and it is doubtful whether you can get it.

People go to Heaven to meet their mother, and father, and relatives, but if we take twenty-five years as a generation, we will find that there have been seventy-nine generations since the time of Christ. And if we count only your parents, their parents, their parents' parents, and so on, you will have to meet 302,231,454,903,657,293,676,543 different relatives. So, it's going to be difficult to find your dear Mom and Dad there.

Our little world would not hold that stupendous number.

If that number of people were on earth, they would make a pile of 113,236 miles high over the earth's surface. If you climbed at 8 miles a day you would reach your grandfather about thirty-nine years later. Of course you can slide down faster and you should reach your place back about fifty years after you left it.

That is two generation. Then, by the time you are back to your place, your own children will be looking for you. You really couldn't expect anybody to hold your place for you for fifty years, so you are going to have a hell of a time in Heaven.

People used to think Heaven was infinite, but Saint John records its limits in Bible. He says that Heaven is about 15 miles long in each dimension. Evidently, Heaven was filled up several hundred years ago - or about the time Columbus was discovering America.

What to do?

Obviously there is no way out. You must die sometime, and since it is so evident that you cannot go to Heaven, where should you go? ... Dare say it!

 

TEXTO 16. MAYA BELIEFS

The Mayas, in Central America believed that 13 heavens were arranged in layers above the earth. The earth was located on the back of a huge crocodile that floated on the ocean. Nine subterranean worlds existed under the earth, also arranged in layers. Thirteen gods presided over the heavens; nine gods ruled the underworlds.

According to the Lacandone Indians, the sun spends the night in an underworld, where his brother Usukunkyum gives him food and protection against the hostile Kisin, the earthquake god.

This myth reflects the strong dualistic tendency of Maya thinking, that life is struggle between good and evil.

Vocabulary:

LAYERS – CAMADAS

MAYA BELIEFS – AS CRENÇAS DOS MAIS

SLIDE - N 1 ESCORREGÃO, ATO DE DESLIZAR. 2 ESCORREGADOR, CORREDIÇA, PEÇA CORREDIÇA, SUPERFÍCIE LISA PARA DESLIZAR OU ESCORREGAR. 3 AM. MASSA DE TERRA OU NEVE QUE ESCORREGA. 4 DESABAMENTO. 5 MEC. VÁLVULA REGISTRO. 6 LÂMINA (PARA MICROSCÓPIO). 7 DIAPOSITIVO. // VT+VI (IMP. SLID, P. P. SLID OU SLIDDEN) 1 DESLIZAR, ESCORREGAR, PATINAR. 2 FAZER DESLIZAR, DESLOCAR EMPURRANDO. 3 ANDAR, MOVER-SE QUIETAMENTE OU EM SEGREDO. 4 PASSAR AOS POUCOS. HE LETS THINGS SLIDE ELE DEIXA AS COISAS PIORAREM. TO SLIDE DOWN DESLIZAR PARA BAIXO. TO SLIDE INTO PASSAR PARA, TRANSFORMAR-SE EM. HE SLID INTO THE HABIT ELE ACOSTUMOU-SE AOS POUCOS.

 

TEXTO 17. A GREEN EARTH OR A DRY DESERT?

There may still be time to choose.

For millions of years, the tropical rainforests of South East Asia, South America, and Africa have been the earth's natural chemical laboratories, botanic gardens and zoos.

Today we are destroying them at such a rate that within 25 years only fragments will remain of the vast forests of Malaysia and Indonesia.

When the trees are felled, soil erosion begins and within a few years, the whole area that was once forest becomes wasteland.

The destruction is happening through ignorance, shortsightedness and ever increasing consumer demand. But it can be stopped if enough of us show enough concern.

How can you help? Join the world Wildlife Fund now. We need you voice and you financial support.

WWF - FOR WOLD CONSERVATION 1196 Gland, Switzerland.

Vocabulary:

FELLED – DERRUBADAS, CORTADAS, ABATIDAS.

SHORTSIGHTEDNESS – VISÃO CURTA. COMPORTAMENTO TÍPICO DE PESSOAS PRECONCEITUOSAS, QUE NÃO TÊM UMA VISÃO ABERTA SOBRE QUALQUER TIPO DE FATO, IMPREVIDÊNCIA 2) MIOPIA.

 

TEXTO 18. MYTHOLOGY

Every human group tries to give a supernatural explanation for its existence. Every people creates concepts of entities responsible for everything that exists. The organization of these concepts is called mythology. Since mythological explanations are supernatural, the basis of mythology is faith.

Many explanations for the creation of man are interesting. According to Greek mythology the Titans were the first inhabitants of the universe. One of the Titans, by the name of Prometheus, took some clay from the ground and mixed it with his tears. After working with passion and dedication, he modeled a statue which looked like the gods. He was so proud of his work that he decided to make a crowd of statues, and so he did.

When Prometheus finished making that large number of statues he looked at them and realized that they were dumb and still. They had no life. So, he gave some animal features to the statues - the courage of the lion, the strength of the bull, the smartness of the fox, the friendship of the dog, and so on.

However, something was still missing in these creatures. It was Athena, the goddess of wisdom, who helped Prometheus. She took a cup of the divine nectar and gave it to the statues. When they drank it, a new light sparkled in their eyes. They were able to reason and think.

Vocabulary:

CLAY – BARRO 2) ARGILA 3) LAMA

FEATURES - CARACTERÍSTICAS

MYTHOLOGY – MITOLOGIA

SPARKLED - BRILHOU. 2) LAMPEJOU.

 

TEXTO 19. CLONING

Cloning means placing a gene inside a microorganism that will reproduce itself and obtain a large number of copies of that gene.

During the 70's, scientists working in the area of creating new animals removed one of the nuclei of a recently-fertilized egg so that the resulting embryo would carry the genetic features of only one of the parents. This gave offspring totally identical to the father or the mother.

Genetic engineering has raised much debate throughout the world. For the distant future, one can think of totally programming and individual, each characteristic being fabricated.

 


 

TEXTO 20. GENETICS

Many attempts have been made throughout history to explain the similarity between parents and children.

People thought, for instance, that the substances responsible for heredity came from the blood of both parents and were mixed together in the child. This idea can be found in expressions like "royal blood" or "bloodline". Another theory suggested the existence of a miniature copy of the father in his reproductive cells. But we know, today, that heredity is carried by the genes, which are chromosome sectors transmitted from parents to children.

The basic laws of heredity are studied by genetics. These laws were stated by Augustinian monk Gregor Jonathan Mendel (1822-1884) in a monastery in the city of Brunn, Austria (now a Czech territory).

Mendel used peas in his experiments because they could be easily observed. He cross-pollinated round peas with wrinkled peas. As a result, two thirds of the peas had pods containing both round and wrinkled peas. Mendel's experiment demonstrated that the gametes (ovule and pollen grain in plants, egg cells and spermatozoa in animals ) contain some factors ( genes ) that are responsible for the appearance of characters in the organism. When fertilization occurs, the genes carried by the male are combined with those carried by the female. The new plant inherits half of its genes from each parent.

Vocabulary:

CROSS-POLLINATED – POLINIZADAS ATRAVÉS DE CRUZAMENTOS / PODS – N 1 VAGEM (DE LEGUMINOSA). 2 BOLSA, SACO. // VI 1 PRODUZIR VAGENS. 2 COLHER EM VAGENS. 3) BANDO DE ANIMAIS

BLOODLINE – LINHAGEM SANGUÍNEA

WRINKLED – RUGOSAS

 

 

TEXTO 21. YAWNING

It seems - nobody is sure of anything nowadays - that yawning was once seen as a chance of evil spirits to enter the body while the soul slipped out. So, we began covering the mouth to frustrate the to-and-fro, but that hasn't put a lid on certain vital questions such as: Who yawns?

Science replies: fish yawn on switching from one activity to another, chickens stand on tiptoe, flap their wings - and yawn. With its head out of the sand, the South African ostrich has been caught yawning. Dogs yawn like mad when they become aggressive, unless - and this goes for cats and apes, too - they are signaling peaceful coexistence.

Dr. Jacques Barbizet, of Saint Antoine Hospital, in Paris, studied yawning with radiographs made every half second. He detected dilation of pharynx, larynx, nostrils, and bronchial tubes; lifting of the eyebrows; lowering of the diaphragm; retreat of the tongue; a sight racing of the heart; increased flow of the blood to the brain; rhythmic lateral motions of the mandible; closure of the eyes; occasional tears and saliva, as well as occasional dislocation of the jaw.

Vocabulary:

CHICKENS STAND ON TIPTOE – GALINHAS FICAM APOIADAS SOBRE AS PONTAS DO DEDOS DOS PÉS.

EYEBROWS – SOBRANCELHAS

FLAP BATER, AGITAR, SACUDIR

FLOW – FLUXO

JAW – MANDÍBULA

NOSTRILS – NARINAS

PUT A LID ON – COLOCAR UMA TAMPA SOBRE

SWITCHING – MUDANDO

TO-AND-FRO – MOVER-SE DE UM LUGAR PARA OUTRO E DEPOIS VOLTAR

 

 

 


 

PARTE 4

TEXT 1

From smutty words to filthy pictures, everyone’s got an opinion on porn. And deep down inside, everyone likes some form of it. You can disagree till your face turns blue, however the porn industry is a money making lucrative world, and we are the reason why. No matter what you look like, someone out there is turned onto your naked (or clothed) flesh, whether you like it or not. And that’s the beauty of porn. It brings a little smile to a person’s life.

Women in the SOB industry, weather they are good at it or not, get paid. In Houston, a strip dancer can make an average way above of $700.00 a week working only 35 hours. If a woman decides to take it a step further and models ‘nude’, she can make a larger amount of money in less time. This type of pornography surely doesn’t cause any problems for women. Just profit.

The Internet has also helped the SOB industry profit by bringing sexual delight with one click of a button in the privacy of your own home. The Internet further facilitates your fantasies by allowing payment in the old fashion check form, or credit card and automatically deducting from your bank account. Again, this is another fact that proves porn helps bring in money for women and safely. A female does not have to be in contact with a person if she is having cyber sex, or selling nude photos.

Of course, with the jubilation of effortless access in porn industry, there are some wicked habits easily obtained on the Internet. This type of hideousness is child pornography and the hidden camera. Even though in some countries it is perfectly normal for a person under 18 to be married and/or to have children, nothing is more disgusting then using a child’s innocence for means of pleasure. Not as horrifying, though equally disturbing the hidden camera has been a huge success on the web too. If a person wants to be in a porn flick then that person will elect to be in one, and until then it is an outrage that some companies make money off of other peoples bodies without their permission. In these two instances, I agree that pornography is beyond nauseating and uncalled-for.

Susan Brownmiller, the Founder of Women against Pornography wrote an essay "Let’s Put Pornography Back in the Closet". She rambles on how "…the feminist objection to pornography is based on our belief that pornography represents hatred of women…. dehumanizes the female body for the purpose of erotic stimulation and pleasure." From my understanding, porn’s main purpose is to bring some type of stimulation and pleasure, and Susan clearly misunderstands the primary objective of porn. Nor does porn dehumanize the female body. A typical pornographic video consists of oral sex and 3 common positions; missionary, women on top, and doggy style. None of these positions or acts causes harms to a woman’s body.

Susan and her long-winded essay, she also stated that the Supreme Court had neglected to define ‘hard-core’. This neglect is a smart move on the Supreme Courts side. What may be hard-core to one person may not be to another. She obviously regards all sexual acts on a person is hard-core and her stating the Supreme Courts act in not defining hard-core being faulty shows her to be closed minded and somewhat uneducated.

In her essay, Susan even admitted to being embarrassed of her own body when she sees another person naked. Maybe this is the root of her problems with pornography. Susan’s own true insecurities with herself cause her to feel inferior when others create pleasure for the public to enjoy in privacy.

Susan brings up the subject of rape many times in her essay blaming porn on the reasons of why women are raped. She thinks porn brands a women as meat and to sum it up, causes a man to uncontrollably have his way with a women by forcing her to have sex. Even though rape is forced sex, it has nothing to do with sex. It has to do with over powering someone else.

Her simple solution of "Getting the stuff out of our sight" can be obtained without infringing another adult person’s right to view and admire the sexual satisfactions of pornography. No one forces a person to go into an adult store and purchase porn. If you don’t like it, don’t buy it.

SOB – Sexually Oriented Business – Strip bars, modeling studios, pornographic videos, magazines, and books. Anything having to do with sex or the act of.

Source – Susan Brownmiller/Let’s Put Pornography Back in the Closet

Source – ‘Monique’ and ‘Chloe’ 2 dancer friends.

http://www.123student.com/social_issues/89.shtml

Vocabulary:

Brand - n 1 tição: pedaço de madeira queimada total ou parcialmente. 2 marca de fogo (em gado). 3 marca, qualidade. 4 marca de fábrica, marca registrada. 5 mácula, desonra, estigma. // vt 1 marcar com ferro quente. 2 marcar, macular, estigmatizar. all of the best brands todos da melhor qualidade. brand of Cain mácula de Caim. that day is branded on my memory este dia está gravado na minha memória. a produt of good brand um produto de boa qualidade.

filth.y - adj imundo, corruto, obsceno. // -ily adv porcamente, sujamente, de maneira imunda. filthy weather tempo muito ruim (com muita chuva ou neve). he is filthy rich ele é muito rico

flick - n 1 pancada leve, chicotada rápida, piparote, laçaço. 2 estalido. 3 listra, risca, pincelada, salpico. 4 Coloq. fita, filme de cinema. // vt+vi 1 chicotear de leve. 2 bater-se de leve. 3 adejar, esvoaçar, agitar, sacudir. 4 mover, repentina e repetidamente. the boys flicked wet towels at each other os rapazes batiam-se com toalhas úmidas. to flick away / off tocar ou expulsar com pequeno movimento do dedo ou da mão. a flick through the pages virar as páginas com o polegar. to flick through dar uma olhada (livros, revistas), virando as páginas

hid.e.ous - adj horrível, horrendo, medonho, terrível. // hideously adv horrendamente, terrivelmente

hid.e.ous.ness - n horribilidade, hediondez

long-winded - adj 1 dotado de grande fôlego. 2 enfadonho, cansativo. // long-windedly adv 1 com grande fôlego. 2 cansativamente

out.rage - n 1 ultraje, afronta, injúria, indignidade, ofensa. 2 excesso, abuso. // vt 1 ultrajar, insultar. 2 exceder-se, abusar. 3 violar, estuprar

o.ver.pow.er - n 1 excesso de poder. 2 poder dominante. // vt 1 dominar, subjugar, conquistar. 2 afetar profundamente. 3 dar demasiado poder a.

ram.ble - n a ação de vaguear, perambular, andar sem destino certo. // vi 1 vaguear, errar, perambular, andar a esmo. 2 falar, escrever ou agir aereamente ou sem conexão. 3 espalhar, esparramar.

ramble on - continuar escrevendo ou falando desconexamente.

smut.ty - adj 1 sujo, manchado (com fuligem). 2 Fig. indecente, obsceno. 3 afetado com carvão. // -ily adv com manchas, com carvão, indecentemente.

uncalled-for - adj 1 indesejado. 2 impróprio, gratuito, desnecessário

uncalled-for - adjective DISAPPROVING - describes a criticism, insult, remark or action that is unfair, rude or hurtful and therefore considered to be unnecessary: an uncalled-for remark. Ex: There's no need to make personal remarks - that was quite uncalled-for.

wind.ed - adj 1 sem fôlego. 2 de fôlego (esp. na formação de palavras, como short-winded

TEXT 2

"I'm just starting my sophomore year in college.... I first knew I had a learning disability when I was in first grade. A learning disability is like any other disability, but in this case it's the learning process that is disturbed. There is something that's stopping me from learning in the average way. I know it's not that I can't learn. I can, but I learn differently and it's often much harder for me.... This in turn means that I have difficulty with reading and spelling, and also with remembering what I hear".

Like Cory, almost 20% of children, of the total school population, suffer from different types of learning disabilities. There are an even larger number of students that go undetected with L.D.s. Most of these, undetected students are male. This might explain the unbelievable number of famous males that have succeeded in their professional careers, while suffering from their disabilities.

Thomas Edison, Winston Churchill, Albert Einstein, da Vinci, Beethoven, and Tom Cruise are only a few of the well known males who have dealt with a learning disability. These famous males had problems in the areas in spelling, grammar, and math. Students without learning disabilities face problems like these, but these areas become increasingly difficult when you have trouble interrupting such everyday subjects. Since a majority of these men were alive before a time when learning disabilities were a documented problem, most of them flunked out of school or had to repeat grades.

Like a building without handicap entrances, school is a major hurdle for a student with a L.D.. School can also bring on some social problems that go along with a learning disability. Words like stupid and retard are thrown around groups of classmates, but, to a special student, these words can be damaging and very hurtful. Kids need to be taught that words like these need to be ignored. This is especially true in L.D. children. What most L.D. students and their parents don't know about themselves is that most L.D. students have average or above average intelligence. There is a blockade that is blocking that vast information.

In the same area of social acceptance, there is the problem of discrimination, because most people think that a disability is more visual, like being in a wheelchair. People think that these students will be a strain on their time. Fellow students and teachers sometime think that L.D. students are not paying attention or hyperactive, think that they are slow, and think that they get special attention. Children often feel frustrated and embarrassed and this makes a student feel like giving up. Giving up is an easy thing to do, but for a L.D. student giving up is made easier when a student feels worthless.

Parents sometime feel broken hearted because their children feel worthless. Parents feel that it is their fault that their child has this problem. In some instances, it is thought that this gene can be passed from the parents, but it can also be the result of an early childhood illness. It is really uncertain what really causes a learning disability. What some people do not understand is that a learning disability can not be fixed. Like everything else in life, it is something that you learn to deal with and it is the L.D. teacher's job to teach this lesson.

An L.D. teacher must have a deep understanding of what it takes for a student to grasp a concept. Mainstreaming is one of the most practiced types of educating disabled kids. This means that the students spend most of their day in regular classes and only a few hours in a special education classes. Skills that are needed to succeed in the general education classes are taught during this time. These classes can be much like a strategy time to figure out of that specific student's way of learning best.

Learning disability teachers spend much of their time trying to help their students adapt to what are called the "normal" classes. What would it be like if a "normal" student tried to learn like a L.D. student does?

1. Write your name on a piece of paper, using your best handwriting. Now write it again, but this time, move your left foot on the floor in a counter-clockwise as you write. Compare the handwriting.

2. Try reading this:

http://www.123student.com/social_issues/86.shtml

 

Vocabulary:

block.ade - n 1 bloqueio. 2 forças militares que executam um bloqueio. 3 obstrução. to raise the blockade levantar o bloqueio. to run the blockade romper o bloqueio.

bring on causar, provocar, trazer.

fig.ure - n 1 figura, imagem, forma, aparência, contorno, vulto. 2 corpo, talhe, parte. 3 individualidade, personagem eminente. 4 diagrama, desenho, emblema, ilustração, figura geométrica. 5 algarismo, cifra, aritmética, número. 6 preço, valor, quantia, importância. 7 símbolo. // vt+vi 1 figurar, formar uma imagem de, desenhar, simbolizar. 2 formar uma idéia ou imagem mental de, imaginar. 3 numerar, marcar por meio de números ou algarismos, computar, calcular, avaliar. 4 Mús. embelezar, adornar, entremear de imagens, assinalar os respectivos acordes. 5 fazer figura, tomar parte em, salientar-se. 6 fazer cálculos matemáticos, decifrar. a fine figure of a man ou woman homem ou mulher bem apessoados, atraentes, altos e elegantes. mother figure símbolo da mãe. to lose one's figure engordar, perder a linha. that figures! isto faz sentido! to figure in aparecer, fazer parte de. what a figure you are! Coloq. que figura você faz! a famous figure in history um grande vulto da história. he cuts a sorry figure ele faz triste figura. it runs into seven figures alcança números de sete algarismos. what's the figure quanto custa isso. to keep one's figure conservar-se esbelto. figure of speech figura de retórica. to figure on Am. Coloq. contar com, esperar. to figure as passar por, parecer, afigurar-se. he figures as the villain ele faz o papel de vilão. to figure out calcular, figurar, imaginar. figure to yourself imagine .

flunk - n Am. Coloq. fracasso, fiasco, reprovação em exame. // vt+vi 1 ser reprovado em exame, levar pau. 2 reprovar em exame, rejeitar por deficiência. 3 fracassar, fazer fiasco, ser rejeitado por deficiência. 4 Am. recuar, desistir, esquivar-se, furtar-se. 5 Am. Coloq. Teat. representar mal. to flunk out Coloq. ser jubilado.

hand.i.cap - n Esp. 1 vantagens concedidas a um adversário mais fraco. 2 desvantagem imposta a um competidor mais forte. 3 desvantagem ou vantagem concedida. 4 obstáculo. 5 deficiência física. // vt ter ou impor desvantagens. to be handicapped with ter a desvantagem de

hur.dle - n 1 Esp. barreira. 2 obstáculo, dificuldade. 3 faxina, cerca, sebe. // vt+vi 1 cercar, fechar. 2 Esp. disputar corrida sobre barreiras. 3 passar sobre um obstáculo

soph.o.more - n 1 Am. estudante do segundo ano. 2 pessoa imatura

strain.1 - n 1 força, peso. 2 esforço, solicitação, extenuação. 3 luxação, deslocamento, contorção. 4 tensão, pressão, compressão. 5 estilo, modo, maneira. 6 procedimento. 7 (também strains) melodia, composição, canção. // vt+vi 1 puxar, esticar, forçar. 2 puxar com força, arrancar. 3 esforçar, concentrar-se. 4 cansar, extenuar, prejudicar por esforço excessivo, torcer, luxar, deslocar, contorcer. 5 estar prejudicado por esforço, estar machucado. 6 abusar, exagerar. 7 esforçar-se, exceder-se. 8 constringir, comprimir. 9 espremer, passar por peneira ou espremedor, coar. 10 percolar, passar. 11 apertar, abraçar, estreitar. the cord could not stand the strain a corda não agüentou o esforço. I have a strain in my hand destronquei minha mão. in this strain desta maneira, neste tom. he was buried to the strains of his favourite song ele foi sepultado ao som de sua canção favorita. she is a strain on my nerves ela me deixa nervoso. he strained the child to his heart ele abraçou a criança. he strained a point ele excedeu-se. to strain at esforçar-se para

strain.2 - n 1 raça, cepa, descendência. 2 grupo, família de plantas ou animais que formam uma variedade, linhagem. 3 qualidade ou caráter hereditário. 4 traço, tendência, disposição. there is a strain of madness in her ela tem um traço de loucura

 

TEXT 3

If you're an Internet user, you know who you are. They are among all of us in society, although many may choose to not acknowledge that they frequently use the Internet, too. As I sit here and look across the street, I see a man in front of his own computer; the screen glowing against the window behind him. He does not use his personal computer for work, he is a farmer. He has become what is known as an "Internet Junky".

The addiction begins innocently. At the start, you are not even aware of the possibilities that may form from your excessive computer use. You begin to take an avid interest in e-mailing with your friends and family. Once the novelty of keeping in touch with your colleagues wears off, and researching starts to bore you, you may possibly expand your computer usage to chatting. Yes, chatting. It is something that is becoming more acceptable in our lives, but it is still looked down upon by many skeptics. Chatting through the Internet involves choosing an appropriate nickname for yourself (IE: Fisherman), and then finding a room where you feel compelled to spend time in. Once you've entered the room, other fellow chatters may say, "Hello...a/s/l (age/sex/location) please."

And so begins the addiction. Once you become involved in meeting people online, it is difficult to break such a habit. You may even make a daily habit of it. People have been found to carry out exactly the same behavior, not only across the nation, but across the globe. In any one room, you may come across people from five different countries of the world. Granted, not everyone who stays online for hours on end are enveloped in chatting, but it is more often then not, the cause for Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD).

The prevalence of Internet Addiction Disorder has been increasing in number. Hence a support group, among many, The Internet Addiction Support Group (IASG), has been developed. IAD, a "maladaptive" pattern for Internet use, is leading to impairment and/or distress caused by three (or more) of the following, at any time in a period of one year: "A) A need for markedly increased amounts of time on Internet to achieve satisfaction, B) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of time on Internet.", C) Reduction in Internet use which has been prolonged.

Symptoms of Internet Addiction Disorder include: "A) Psychomotor agitation, B) anxiety, C) obsessive thinking about what is happening on Internet, D) fantasies or dreams about Internet, E) voluntary or involuntary typing movements of the fingers." These symptoms begin to cause conflict in "social, occupational, or another important area of functioning." People who become addicted, use the Internet to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms, which are similar to those brought on by the halt of drug use. The disorder is recognized by the "persistent desire" or "unsuccessful efforts" to minimize the Internet use.

On June 14, 1998, ABC news reported that an "Internet crazed" Cincinnati woman was arrested for neglecting her three young children. The woman reportedly spent 12 hours straight online, while her hungry kids were locked away in a room so she could be online without interruption. (Associated Press)

The Internet is rapidly becoming an addictive source to a lot of its users. Use of the Internet include: students, housewives, and business professionals. Some of these users spend a minimum of thirty-eight hours per week on the "net"; hence, losing touch with reality and reeking havoc on their studies, family lives, and even their careers. Based on level of addiction, there are three groups of Internet addicts: A) the "I'm-not-addicted-users", B) the "I-only-use-it-when-I-have-to-users", and C) the "Internet Junkies."

The "I'm not addicted users" are those who try to convince themselves that they are not addicted to the Internet. This group includes college students who don't go online during the day to prove to fellow classmates that they can do without getting online; only, to stay up all night in a chat room. College students are not the only people who fit in this category though. In general, these users are addicts but portray themselves otherwise in the presence of people. The "I only use it when I have to users", are those who make convenient excuses to go online. And finally, the "Internet Junkies" are unlike the addicts in the previous two groups, these users neither sneak online nor make excuses to get online. They put their lives on hold while engrossed with their computer usage.

People who seem addicted to the Internet often show signs of psychiatric disorders such as, manic-depression. Psychiatrist Nathan Shapira of the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, studied 14 people who had spent so much time online, that they were facing problems at home, job loss, and flunking out of school. Nine of the 14 people studied were found to have manic-depression at the time of the interview; half of the users had anxiety disorder such as "social phobia"; three suffered from eating disorders; four had uncontrollable burst of anger; and eight had abused alcohol or drugs at some time in their life. (Associated Press)

People with no prior sign of psychiatric trouble have gotten hooked on the Internet too. Yes, it is avoidable, but still many people fall into the addictive track, just as if it were smoking, drinking, or any other habitual behavior. The addiction can attack anyone, of any age. Today's youth live with the Internet as a daily part of their lives. Chatting after school and on the weekends is listed among the usual activities like sporting events and shopping. Help is available, but don't get yourself tangled into the addiction. It's hard to break once you've got yourself wound into the habit. Good luck fellow Internet users.

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Vocabulary:

en.gross - vt 1 passar a limpo. 2 absorver (atenção). 3 ocupar totalmente (o tempo). 4 escrever com letra de forma. 5 apoderar-se, abarcar, atrair, monopolizar. 6 elaborar, lavrar, redigir (uma lei). the book engrossed my attention o livro prendeu toda a minha atenção

Glow - n 1 incandescência, brasa, brilho. 2 ardor, rubor, vermelhão, paixão, animação, calor (interior). // vi 1 incandescer, estar em brasa, estar rubro, arder, brilhar intensamente. 2 estar corado ou afogueado, irradiar saúde ou alegria, ruborizar, estar apreensivo ou animado (com with). he glowed with indignation ele estava vermelho de raiva

hav.oc - n destruição, devastação, massacre. // vt destruir, devastar. to cry havoc 1 chamar em altos brados. 2 dar o sinal para violências. to make havoc of devastar, destruir.

Junky ou junkie – viciado

look down upon - 1 menosprezar. 2 assumir ares de superioridade.

nov.el.ty - n 1 novidade. 2 inovação

Reek - n 1 cheiro forte, desagradável. 2 fumaça, vapor. // vt+vi 1 emitir um cheiro forte e desagradável. 2 emitir fumaça ou vapores. 3 estar molhado de suor ou sangue. 4 estar impregnado de qualquer umidade fétida. to reek of cheirar a. to reek with estar coberto de (algo desagradável).

Sneak - n 1 andar ou movimento leve ou furtivo. 2 covarde. // vt+vi 1 andar de rastos, andar furtivamente. 2 obter, passar às escondidas. 3 Coloq. roubar, surrupiar. 4 agir furtivamente. to go on the sneak Gír. entrar sorrateiramente para roubar. to sneak about investigar secretamente. to sneak away, off safar-se, evadir-se. to sneak out of s. th. fugir de alguma coisa

wear off - 1 gastar-se, desgastar-se. 2 enfraquecer, diminuir aos poucos. 3 esfriar, perder-se (sentimentos).

wind.1 - n 1 vento. 2 brisa, aragem. 3 vento forte, temporal, ventania. 4 gases, flatulência. 5 (Caça) faro, cheiro. 6 fôlego. 7 conversa à toa. 8 Mús. instrumento de sopro (também winds) ou quem toca instrumento de sopro. // vt 1 expor ao vento e ao ar, arejar. 2 farejar, seguir o cheiro de. 3 exaustar, cansar (cavalo). 4 (deixar) resfolegar, tomar fôlego, descansar (cavalo). 5 (imp. e p. p. wound ou winded) soprar, tocar instrumento de sopro.

wind.2 - n 1 torcedura, enroscamento. 2 curvatura, tortuosidade, sinuosidade. 3 giro, volta, curva, rotação. // vt+vi (imp. e p. p. wound) 1 serpear, serpentear. 2 envolver, enroscar(-se) (round em volta de). 3 girar, rotar. 4 Náut. virar a proa. 5 empenar(-se), dobrar(-se), entortar(-se), torcer(-se), retorcer(-se). 6 enrolar(se). 7 envolver(significado no texto). 8 abraçar. 9 enredar. 10 guindar, içar, levantar. 11 dar corda a. 12 insinuar-se. 13 girar o braço antes de lançar a bola (em beisebol).

 

TEXT 4

Why would our government try to hurt kids? Well, kids are being hurt right now. You see, in America punishment, rather than rehabilitation is being emphasized for juveniles who commit crimes. This way of thinking must stop with the addition of rehabilitation and prevention programs for juvenile offenders.

States vary in their legal definition of a juvenile. In Illinois, for example, a juvenile is defined as any person below the age of 17. Using each state's legal definition, the FBI reported that 62% of juveniles arrested in 1992 were referred to juvenile courts, 5% to a criminal or adult court, 2% to a welfare agency, and 1% to another police agency. The kids sent to adult prisons were eight times as likely to commit suicide. It has also been evident that those kids incarcerated with adults are also more likely to become repeat offenders.

Legislation pending in congress now is debating several issues. Among them are weather to have children as young as 13 be prosecuted and sentenced as adults for certain crimes, give prosecutors the discretion to transfer a juvenile to an adult court in certain crimes, and allow juveniles to have incidental contact and in some cases be housed with adults.

I take an opposing point of view with that of congress. If a 13 year old is imprisoned, how can he become a functional member of society upon his release? How will he create a positive lifestyle for himself? The real question is: How can he turn in any direction other than that of crime? He simple will not be able to. If a child is sent to a prison to stay in a cell for hours at a time, the only life he will know is the life he came from, not the life that could be his. Also, a prosecutor shouldn't have the privilege to decide what court a kid is placed in. A prosecutor has a built in bias; the decision should be left to a judge who would look in the best interest of the convicted person. The statistics prove that housing children with adults can only have a disastrous outcome for the juvenile.

The goal of juvenile detention should be to rehabilitate and develop the individual. Appropriate educational skills need to be taught. Children need to be put in touch with their feeling through counseling. Juvenile offenders need to be exposed to role models from within their community and without. A sense of hope should be instilled so that the young offender is not resigned to the fate of a "second class citizen."

More important than efforts to rehabilitate the offender would be programs to prevent the juvenile from committing crimes to begin with. Keyshawn Johnson, a wide receiver for the NFL's New York Jets, recently said "People hate to say it, but what you are around is what you're going to be. At 13 years old and you're around crime, you're going to be a criminal." For this reason, prevention efforts must involve the entire community, including schools, faith-based organizations, business, law enforcement and most importantly, the parents. If parents are unable to properly educate their kids, then programs need to be developed to train the parents. Boys and girls clubs basketball leagues, The Jessie White Tumblers, adult mentoring, and student exchanges are all positive prevention programs that need to be continued and further promoted.

It is imperative that our federal government set a tone and send the message that juveniles who come in contact with the law are entitled to protections not available to adults. Rehabilitation, not long term imprisonment, should be the goal, and prevention now is preferable to punishment later. 2.3 million juveniles were arrested in 1992. It is in the best interest of America to see that these 2.3 million do not become adult offenders.

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Vocabulary:

bi.as - n 1 linha inclinada ou oblíqua. 2 movimento oblíquo. 3 inclinação, tendência. 4 preconceito. 5 propensão. // vt influenciar (de modo desfavorável), predispor. // adj oblíquo, diagonal, enviesado (corte de tecido). // adv obliquamente, diagonalmente. without bias sem preconceitos.

bias - polarização; (a) nível elétrico de referência; (b) sinal de alta freqüência adicionado à informação gravada para minimizar ruído e distorção (a alta freqüência é removida quando da reprodução da informação); (c) desvio dos resultados estatísticos de um nível de referência. - Executivo – bias - viés. 1. Diferença entre o valor estimado e o verdadeiro de um dado obtido por amostragem aleatória (random sample). Esta tendenciosidade é sistemática, distinguindo-se das casuais, que tendem a cancelar-se mutuamente. 2. Tendenciosidade, predisposição, inclinação, parcialidade. (107) (108) (231) (244)

coun.sel - n 1 troca de idéias, deliberação, consulta. 2 conselho, recomendação. 3 opinião, parecer. 4 conselheiro. 5 jurisconsulto, advogado. 6 desígnio, plano. // vt+vi 1 aconselhar. 2 recomendar. 3 trocar idéias, deliberar, consultar. I took counsel with him troquei idéias com ele. he asked counsel of me ele pediu meu conselho. to be the counsel in a case defender uma causa. he was counselled deixou-se orientar, aceitou conselho. - Executivo – counsel - advogado. Na Inglaterra, conselheiro legal credenciado, quase sempre conhecido como (barrister), ao passo que na Escócia é chamado de (advocate). (244)

Ex.: <dias nublados instilavam na sua alma profunda melancolia> <uma desconfiança instilava-se em sua alma>

in.stil - in.still vt instilar, deitar às gotas instilar - verbo bitransitivo 1)introduzir gota a gota (um líqüido) em; injetar Ex.: a cobra instilou seu veneno na presa - bitransitivo 2) fazer correr gota a gota (líquido, produto, substância) numa cavidade, num órgão de um ser vivo, em geral por meio de instrumento; pingar, gotejar Ex.: instilou várias gotas do remédio no ouvido bitransitivo e pronominal 3) Derivação: sentido figurado. fazer penetrar ou penetrar progressivamente (uma idéia, um sentimento) no espírito de alguém; insinuar(-se), insuflar(-se)

out.come - n resultado, efeito, conseqüência

re.sign - vt+vi 1 resignar-se, renunciar. 2 conformar-se, submeter-se. 3 demitir-se. 4 Xadrez abandonar. to resign from office demitir-se de seu cargo. to resign to the will of God submeter-se à vontade de Deus

set a tone – estabeleça uma harmonia

wel.fare - n 1 bem-estar, prosperidade. 2 felicidade, saúde social. 3 Previdência Social, Assistência Social (governamental). // adj relativo à assistência social. welfare work obra de assistência social.- Executivo - welfare - bem-estar. 1. Bom estado geral em que uma pessoa se encontra. 2. Auxílio a uma pessoa necessitada, proporcionando-lhe alimentos, agasalhos, cuidados médicos etc. (244)

 

TEXT 5

"HIGH SCHOOLS MUST PROVIDE YOUNG PEOPLE WITH ADEQUATE SEX EDUCATION BECAUSE IGNORANCE CAN BE HARMFUL"

The largest gulf of understanding still remains between the parents and the youth especially in the area of sexuality. Sex is a natural part of life, and when questions arise, they can be discussed in a matured way without condoning certain behavior. Relying to that, we realize that sex education is important to be inserted in a person's life. Therefore, sex education in high schools is very necessary for youngsters to acquire information, form attitudes, beliefs and values about identity, relationships and intimacy. Sex education also encompasses sexual development, affection, body image and gender roles. In other words, it is about learning how we grow, reproduce and change over the years. It also includes a positive view of sex and the safety involved on sexuality. Regarding to the importance of sex education, I want to state my stand here that I strongly agree that "High schools must provide young people with adequate sex education because ignorance can be harmful".

Sex education in high schools helps young people to be more prepared for life changes such as puberty, menopause and aging. Sex education can develop skills and self esteem to help students enter adolescence. It helps them in knowing that the sudden few changes are okay and normal. For example, girls would not get shocked, panic and afraid at their first menstruation once they already had the knowledge about it.

Young people can also learn to appreciate and recognize their own sex: bodies just as good, beautiful and special as other God's perfect creations. Moreover, it delivers confidence on them to value themselves and others. Sex education helps them understand the place of sexuality in human life and loving other people. They will learn to enjoy their sexuality, behave responsibly within their sexual and personal relationships.

Youngsters are usually very curious to know all new things that came up to them especially abstract things such as sex. Despite that, sex education plays a major role in addressing concerns and correcting the misunderstandings that the youngsters may have gained from sources such as the media and their peers. In addition, they will learn to make decisions that respect themselves and others by taking account the possible consequences. For instance, youngsters will be more matured, responsible and social ills can also be reduced. Furthermore, research had shown that children that are subjected to sex education are more apparent to practice safer sex.

Some people might say that sex education could influence premarital marriage, leading to the increment of unwanted pregnancies. Conversely, a survey done in 1987 had shown that girls who were not educated about menstruation and sexual activity were much more likely to become pregnant during their teen years. There was also a statement from the Government Review of National and International Research in London that identified high school sex education as being effective in reducing teenage pregnancies. Based on the facts given, it clearly proves that sex education does not lead youngsters to social ills such as unwanted pregnancies. However, a slight problem might arise since sex education might be a new subject or program in most high schools. Therefore, the program should be planned carefully in conjunction with those who will participate and the parents. The program instructors also ought to receive adequate training and equipped with the required skills and knowledge to support the personal and social development of young people through sex education.

In conclusion, we must realize the importance of sex education being taught in high schools to students. This is to ensure the students that are our future generations will be well prepared to stand up against all the unexpected obstacles in their future. After all, "Education does not hurt, but ignorant does".

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Vocabulary:

ag.ing - age.ing n envelhecimento, maduração (também relativamente ao vinho, metais, etc.).

gulf - n 1 golfo, baía, braço de mar. 2 abismo, redemoinho, voragem, goela, garganta. // vt devorar, tragar

 

TEXT 6

The world has gone through a revolution and it has changed a lot. We have cut the death rates around the world with modern medicine and new farming methods. For example, we sprayed to destroy mosquitoes in Sri Lanka in the 1950s. In one year, the average life of everyone in Sri Lanka was extended by eight years because the number of people dying from malaria suddenly declined.

This was a great human achievement. But we cut the death rate without cutting the birth rate. Now population is soaring. There were about one billion people living in the world when the Statue of Liberty was built. There are more than 6 billion today. World population is growing at an enormous rate. The world is going to add a billion people in the next eleven years, that's 300,000 every day! Experts say there will be at least 2.2 billion more people living in the world in the next twenty years.

We must understand what these numbers mean for the U.S. Let's look at the question of jobs. The International Labor organization projects a twenty-year increase of 700 to 800 million people who will be seeking jobs.

Eighty-eight percent of the world's population growth takes place in the Third World. More than a billion people today are paid about 250 dollars a year, which is less than the average American earns in a week. And growing numbers of these poorly paid Third World citizens want to come to the United States.

In the 1970s, all other countries that accept immigrants started controlling the number of people they would allow into their countries. The United States did not. This means that the huge numbers of immigrants who are turned down elsewhere will turn to the United States. The number of immigrants is staggering. The human suffering they represent is a nightmare.

Latin America's population is now 520 million people. It will be 800 million in the year 2025. Mexico's population has tripled since the Second World War. One third of the population of Mexico is under ten years of age, as a result, in just ten years, Mexico's unemployment rate will increase 30 percent, as these children become young adults, in search of work. There were in 1990 an estimated four million illegal aliens in the United States, and about 55 percent of them were from Mexico.

These people look to the United States. Human population has always moved, like waves, to fresh lands. But for the first time in human history, there are no fresh lands, no new continents. We will have to think and decide with great care what our policy should be toward immigration. At this point in history, American immigration policies are in a mess.

Our borders are totally out of control. Our border patrol arrests 4000 illegal immigrants per day, or 1.6 million per year, and Two illegal immigrants get in for every one caught. And those caught just try again!

More than 1 million people are entering the U.S. legally every year. From 1991 through 2000, 11.6 million of these newcomers arrived-the highest number in any 10-year period since 1910. A record 2.3 million were granted permanent residence in 2000. Because present law stresses family unification, these arrivals can bring over their spouses, sons and daughters: some 4.7 million are now in line to come in. Once here, they can bring in their direct relatives. As a result, there exists no visible limit to the number of legal entries. Until a few years ago, immigrants seeking asylum were rare. In 1975, a total of 200 applications were received in the U.S. Suddenly, asylum is the plea of choice in the U.S., and around the world, often as a cover for economic migration. U.S. applications were up to 137,000 last year, and the backlog tops 400,000 cases. Under the present asylum rules, practically anyone who declares that he or she is fleeing political oppression has a good chance to enter the U.S. Chinese are almost always admitted, for example, if they claim that China's birth-control policies have limited the number of children they can have. Right now, once aliens enter the U.S., it is almost impossible to deport them, even if they have no valid documents. Thousands of those who enter illegally request asylum only if they are caught. The review process can take 10 years or more, and applicants often simply disappear while it is under way. Asylum cases are piling up faster than they can be cleared, with the Immigration and Naturalization Service falling farther behind every year. At her confirmation hearings at the end of September, Doris Meissner, the president's nominee as commissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Services, conceded, ''The asylum system is broken, and we need to fix it.''

Adding the numbers of legal and illegal immigrants, 50 percent of all U.S. population growth comes from immigration. While Americans try to have smaller families, immigration threatens our nation. If immigration rates continue to be this high, more than seventy million people will be added to the United States population in just fifty years, with no end in sight. We are taking in more people than all of the rest of the world combined. As have all the other countries of the world, America needs to control its borders. As every house needs a door, so every country needs a border. And yet, our borders are full of holes. We have clearly lost control over our future. Our children will pay the price of uncontrolled immigration.

The United States is no longer an empty continent. In 1886, when the Statue of Liberty was built, there were 58 million people in the United States. In 1984 there were 240 million people, that's four times the total population in less then a century The U.S. cannot and should not be the home of last resort for all the world s poor, huddled masses. We are not doing a good job with our own poor, as we see more people without jobs.

Supporters of immigration use many arguments to support their side. Let's look at a few of these arguments: Illegal immigrants take jobs no Americans want. The fact is that the average illegal immigrant arrested in Denver, Colorado, made more than seven dollars an hour. Many were making over 135 dollars per day. Denver identified 57 illegal aliens making 135 dollars per day as roofers, while 582 people were registered in their employment services who would have loved those jobs. The average illegal immigrant arrested in Chicago makes $9.5 an hour. More than thirty million American workers make less than that. A common belief is that aliens fulfill many of the least desirable jobs. However, most experts agree that in today's economy, there is no shortage of Americans competing for many of these same jobs. Actually, many Americans already work in these low-paying jobs. For example: the poor black woman, who works as a seamstress, Her boss asked her to train a new employee, an illegal immigrant. As soon as she finished training her new charge, she was fired. Her position, of course, went to the illegal immigrant, who was willing to work for less pay, and under deplorable working conditions. This is one example of how illegal workers depress wages, and slow, stall or prevent unionization or improvements to working conditions.

Another myth cited by supporters of immigration is that illegal immigrants work hard, pay taxes, and do not go on welfare. The sad truth is that these folks seem to learn the ropes of the welfare system with incredible speed.

Today's illegal immigrants apply for and receive benefits from the government that citizens need. According to Donald L. Huddle, an economist at Rice University in Texas, legal and illegal immigrants cost the nation a net 57 billion dollars in 2000. The Huddle study also found that in 2000, more than 2,7 million Americans were displaced from their jobs by illegal immigrants. This resulted in an additional 158 billion dollars in public assistance.

In California alone, they cost more than 24,3 billion dollars a year. California currently has an estimated 400,000 illegal immigrants now attending grades' 0-12. This will costs the California tax payers an estimated 2 billion dollars. This is 10 percent of the students currently enrolled in our elementary schools today! California has 49.8 percent of the countries illegal aliens, therefore, California pays multiple costs for its leaky borders.

Providing health care for illegal immigrants costs California tax payers 400 million dollars annually. Illegals drain about two billion dollars a year for incarceration, schooling and Medicaid from the budgets of such major destination states as Texas, Florida and California. For California alone, a 2000 study by the California Legislature estimates criminal justice costs involving illegal immigrants to be 520 million dollars to the state, with an additional 152 million dollars to local or county government. This is a total cost of 672 million dollars, paid by the California tax payer, each and every year! Illinois did a study showing that it paid 89 million dollars in unemployment benefits to illegal immigrants in one year, despite a law that was supposed to stop illegal immigrants from getting unemployment benefits. Los Angeles estimates that it spends 363 million dollars in social services on illegal immigrants each year. Every person added to our population drains our natural resources and contributes to the destruction of our environment.

In a Pulitzer-Prize-winning study, the Des Moines Register found that for every person added to our population, 1.5 acres of the richest farm land goes out of production to make way for new houses, roads, and shopping centers. If this continues, the United States will stop shipping food to other countries shortly after the year 2010. How can the United States feed the hungry people of the world? The national majority now says it favors cutting back on legal immigration. A TIME/CNN poll determined last week that 77 percent of those surveyed felt the government was not doing enough to keep out illegal immigrants. For years now, the battle has raged between the federal authorities who are supposed to police the borders and the states who pay the price if they fail.

In an attempt to reduce illegal immigration, Nevada Senator Harry Reid, has introduced a bill that would establish an annual limit of 400,000 newcomers, including ''immediate relatives,'' and a national identification card. Congress passed legislation in 1986 that stipulates fines and other penalties for employers who knowingly hire illegal aliens. The bill includes provisions to grant amnesty to illegal aliens who were in the United States prior to January 1, 1982, and to aid farmers who have relied on illegal aliens to harvest their crops.

Does anyone benefit from the rising tide of illegal immigration? Businesses that can profit from employing illegals at low wages do. And many illegals are better off here than in their own countries. But many others are exploited by dishonest employers and are treated like slaves. These immigrants are denied the rights and privileges we want every person in the United States to enjoy.

In closing, we must all realize this issue will not go away. Other generations of Americans made great sacrifices so that we today can enjoy the freedom, the quality of life, and the standard of living that we have. When I think of what uncontrolled immigration will do to the dreams of my parents and grandparents, what it will mean to the future of my children, I realize that we will find a way to control immigration. Because we must.

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Vocabulary:

cut back - repetir um quadro (de filme).

Seamstress costureira

Stall paralisar, parar.

Unionizations formação de sindicatos

 

TEXT 7

While many people believe there should be more gun control and the possibility of banning guns all together, I believe the gun control laws should not be changed. Although there are many reasons that may persuade people to choose to ban guns, I believe that there are several other reasons that lead to all the tragedies with guns in America. Banning guns is not an answer the gun problem in America, there are a few other things that could be done to stop gun violence. In this essay I will tell about why I believe gun control laws should not be changed.

After the many shootings in schools over the past two years, many people believe guns should be made illegal for civilians to posses or purchase guns. While this may make it difficult for minors, drug addicts, and people with mental deficiencies to get hold on a gun, The Constitution allows all citizens to possess arms to defend themselves, their families', and their property. However if guns were made illegal, there would still be people who would smuggle guns. If a burglar were to smuggle a gun in to someone's home, that man or woman should be allowed to posses a gun to defend themselves.

And if guns were illegal, mostly only people who do not abide the law would smuggle them, leaving all the law-abiding citizens unarmed and more prone to attack with a gun.

Some people suggest making a longer waiting-period and deeper background check to purchase a gun would reduce the amount of violence with guns. While once again that would make it more difficult for minors, drug addicts, and people with mental deficiencies to obtain a gun, it would not prevent many people who wish to have a gun from getting one. Also, many people obtain guns from stealing it from another person, or buying it off a citizen who is unknowledgable or uncaring for the law, or the temperament of the buyer. Besides, if a person who is of age, and has a clear record wishes to buy a gun to be violent with it, there is no way of preventing him or her.

Anyone who believes strengthening the gun control laws would reduce gun violence is correct. However, if someone wants to kill someone, not having a gun is unfortunately not going to stop him or her. If a gun is not accessible, a person who wishes to kill someone will use another weapon that is accessible, such as a knife or bludgeon of sorts. Banning guns will lessen gun violence, but will bring up a rise in violence with other weapons.

Unfortunately, many people who possess guns should not posses one. However I do not see it feasible to strengthen guns laws. I believe that there should be stronger penalties for people who are caught with a gun illegally and stronger penalties for people who are or threaten violence with a gun. This would make people think twice about smuggling a gun, or carry them when they are not supposed to. This might also influence Congress to pass a law for a stronger background check on people purchasing a gun, which would satisfy both sides of this argument. A stronger penalty for gun offenders might cause the amount of violence without a gun to rise a small amount, people would still attempt to get a gun, because most people who commit a crime assume they can get away with it.

In conclusion, strengthening the gun control laws will not prevent murderers from murdering people, it will only make it more difficult. Although the system is stronger, people will beat it. The only way I see possible to lessen gun violence is to make stronger penalties for gun offenders.

http://www.123student.com/social_issues/77.shtml

Vocabulary:

bludg.eon - n cacete, clava. // vt 1 bater com cacete. 2 ameaçar

bur.glar - n assaltante, arrombador

fea.si.ble - adj 1 factível, exeqüível, praticável, possível, provável. 2 maneável, manejável, prestimoso. 3 verossímil, plausível. //

smug.gle - vt+vi 1 contrabandear, fazer contrabando. 2 fazer entrar ou sair às escondidas.

un.car.ing - adj diz-se de pessoa sem sentimentos, que não se importa com o sofrimento alheio

 


 

PARTE 5

 

TEXT 1

Human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent. Human rights are what make us human. When we speak of the right to life, or development, or to dissent and diversity, we are speaking of tolerance. Tolerance will ensure all freedoms. Without it, we can be certain of none.

The raging ethnic cleansing in Kosovo is an example of intolerance. The Serbians will not tolerate the Albanians at any cost. They are forcing them from their homes, turning the streets into killing fields. This civil war seems unstoppable because of the intolerance of one race against another. No respect for individual rights, basic human rights.

Another example is right in our own backyard. I am speaking of hate crimes which plague our society. They are no different today than centuries ago when slavery was allowed. One race against another. One religion against another, it is all the same. Hate is the opposite of tolerance. We can only live together through an expression of tolerance of the differences each of us brings into this world. We should embrace the differences and share the differences. For this is how we learn, through each other's differences. Tolerance in all cultures is the basis of peace and progress.

Our country was founded on the basic idea that all man and women are created equal with liberty and justice for all. We must respect and preserve the rights of all, for when the rights of one is threatened the rights of all are diminished. I would like to leave you with this story to ponder. In Germany they came for the Communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn't speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me and by that time no one was left to speak up. Remember tolerance and mercy have always and in all cultures been ideals of government rule and human behavior. Today, we call these ideals human rights. Human rights are to be respected and preserved if we are progress as a society and as a people.

Affirmative:
Organized government would be non-existent if human rights were not preserved and protected.

This Nation was founded by men of many nations and backgrounds. It was founded on the principle that all men are created equal, and that the rights of every man are diminished when the rights of one man are threatened. Human rights are the foundation of human existence and coexistence. Human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent. Human rights are what make us human. When we speak of the right to life, or development, or to dissent and diversity, we are speaking of tolerance. Tolerance- - promoted, protected and enshrined- - will ensure all freedoms. Without it, we can be certain of none.

Human right are those rights which are inherent in each of us by virtue of the fact the we are members of the human species. For example, one human right would be the right to live free from unprovoked acts of violence. Another would be the right to be recognized and respected as a person. Without respect for each others basic human rights , organized anything would be virtually impossible. The law of the land would be replaced by the law of the jungle. Protection of human rights if essential for any organized society. Respect and protection of human rights and organized government can not be separated, one can not exist without the other. Human rights are the expression of those traditions of tolerance in all religious and cultures that are the basis of peace and progress. Human rights are foreign to no culture and native to all nations. Tolerance and mercy have always and in all cultures been ideals of government rule and human behavior. Today, we call these ideals human rights.

It is the university of human rights that gives them their strength. It endows them with the power to cross any border, climb any wall, defy any force. The struggle for universal human rights has always and everywhere been the struggle against all forms of tyranny and injustice- -against slavery, against colonialism, against apartheid. It is nothing less and nothing different today. Our great country was founded on the basic idea that all man are created equal with liberty and justice for all. We must remember with rights comes responsibility. The responsibility to respect and preserve the rights of all. I would like to leave you with this story to ponder. In Germany they came for the Communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn't speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me and by that time no one was left to speak up. If we expect our rights to be respected and protected we must speak up to preserve human rights for all humanity. We must become watchdogs of our government to insure that human rights will be respected and protected, for without human rights there is no organized government.

http://www.123student.com/social_issues/80.shtml

Vocabulary:

cleans.ing - n 1 limpeza. 2 purificação

de.fy - vt desafiar, provocar

dis.sent - n 1 dissensão, diferença de opinião, discordância. 2 dissidência, heterodoxia. 5 vi (from) dissentir, divergir, discordar, diferir.

en.dow - vt doar, dotar. endowed with dotado com. endowed school escola mantida por doações

ra.ging - adj 1 feroz, intenso. 2 espumejante, espumoso, tempestuoso

security check - verificação de segurança - identificação dos usuários autorizados (através de uma senha) antes de permitir o acesso.

turn into transformar

watchdog vigia

 

 


 

TEXT 2

Americans are faced with an ever-growing problem of violence. Our streets have become a battleground where the elderly are beaten for their social security checks, where terrified women are viciously attacked and raped, where teen-age gangsters shoot it out for a patch of turf to sell their illegal drugs, and where innocent children are caught daily in the crossfire of drive-by shootings. We cannot ignore the damage that these criminals are doing to our society, and we must take actions to stop these horrors. However, the effort by some misguided individuals to eliminate the legal ownership of firearms does not address the real problem at hand, and simply disarms the innocent law-abiding citizens who are most in need of a form of self-defense.

To fully understand the reasons behind the gun control efforts, we must look at the history of our country, and the role firearms have played in it. The second amendment to the Constitution of the United States makes firearm ownership legal in this country. There were good reasons for this freedom, reasons which persist today. Firearms in the new world were used initially for hunting, and occasionally for self-defense. However, when the colonists felt that the burden of British oppression was too much for them to bear, they picked up their personal firearms and went to war. Standing against the British armies, these rebels found themselves opposed by the greatest military force in the world at that time. The 18th century witnessed the height of the British Empire, but the rough band of colonial freedom fighters discovered the power of the Minuteman, the average American gun owner. These Minutemen, so named because they would pick up their personal guns and jump to the defense of their country on a minute's notice, served a major part in winning the American Revolution. The founding fathers of this country understood that an armed populace was instrumental in fighting off oppression, and they made the right to keep and bear arms a constitutionally guaranteed right.

Over the years, some of the reasons for owning firearms have changed. As our country grew into a strong nation, we expanded westward, exploring the wilderness, and building new towns on the frontier. Typically, these new towns were far away from the centers of civilization, and the only law they had was dispensed by townsfolk through the barrel of a gun. Crime existed, but could be minimized when the townspeople fought back against the criminals. Eventually, these organized townspeople developed police forces as their towns grew in size. Fewer people carried their firearms on the street, but the firearms were always there, ready to be used in self-defense.

It was after the Civil War that the first gun-control advocates came into existence. These were southern leaders who were afraid that the newly freed black slaves would assert their newfound political rights, and these leaders wanted to make it easier to oppress the free blacks. This oppression was accomplished by passing laws making it illegal in many places for black people to own firearms. With that effort, they assured themselves that the black population would be subject to their control, and would not have the ability to fight back. At the same time, the people who were most intent on denying black people their basic rights walked around with their firearms, making it impossible to resist their efforts. An unarmed man stands little chance against an armed one, and these armed men saw their plans work completely. It was a full century before the civil rights activists of the 1960s were able to restore the constitutional freedoms that blacks in this country were granted in the 1860s.

Today's gun control activists are a slightly different breed. They claim that gun violence in this country has gotten to a point where something must be done to stop it. They would like to see criminals disarmed, and they want the random violence to stop. I agree with their sentiments. However, they are going about it in the wrong way. While claiming that they want to take guns out of the hands of criminals, they work to pass legislation that would take the guns out of the hands of law-abiding citizens instead. For this reason the efforts at gun control do not address the real problem of crime.

The simple definition of a criminal is someone who does not obey the law. The simple definition of a law-abiding citizen is someone who does obey the law. Therefore, if we pass laws restricting ownership of firearms, which category of people does it affect? The simple answer is that gun control laws affect law-abiding citizens only. By their very nature, the criminals will continue to violate these new laws, they will continue to carry their firearms, and they will find their efforts at crime much easier when they know that their victims will be unarmed. The situation is similar to that of the disarmed blacks a century ago. Innocent people are turned into victims when new laws make it impossible for them to fight back. An unarmed man stands little chance against an armed one. An interesting recent development has been the backlash against the gun-control advocates. In many states, including Florida and Texas, citizens have stated that they want to preserve their right to carry firearms for self-defense. Since the late 1980s, Florida has been issuing concealed weapons permits to law-abiding citizens, and these citizens have been carrying their firearms to defend themselves from rampant crime. The result is that the incidence of violent crime has actually dropped in contrast to the national average. Previously, Florida had been leading the nation in this category, and the citizens of that state have welcomed the change. Gun control advocates tried to claim that there would be bloodshed in the streets when these citizens were given the right to carry. They tried to claim that the cities of Florida would become like Dodge City with shoot outs on every street corner. These gun control advocates were wrong. Over 200,000 concealed carry permits have been issued so far, with only 36 of these permits revoked for improper use of a firearm. This statistic is easy to understand. It is the law-abiding citizens who are going through the process of getting concealed carry permits so that they may legally carry a firearm. The people who go through this legal process do not want to break the law, and they do not intend to break the law. The people who do intend to break the law will carry their guns whether or not the law allows them to do so.

Criminals will always find ways to get guns. In this country we have criminalized the use, possession, sale, and transportation of many kinds of narcotics, but it's still easy for someone to take a ride and purchase the drugs of their choice at street corner vendors. Firearms and ammunition would be just as easy for these black-market entrepreneurs to deliver to their customers. Today, criminals often carry illegal weapons, including sawed-off shotguns, machine guns, and homemade zip-guns, clearly showing their disregard for the current laws which make these items illegal. And when they are caught, the courts regularly dismiss these lesser weapons charges when prosecuting for the more serious charges that are being committed with the weapons.

The gun control advocates have argued their case by demonizing the gun itself, rather than addressing the people who commit violent crimes. This is the main fallacy in their argument. They slyly attempt to claim that possession of a gun turns average citizens into bloodthirsty lunatics. This theory falls apart under close scrutiny. If legal possession of a firearm caused this sort of attitude, then why are crime rates highest in areas such as Washington, D.C. and New York City which have strict gun control laws? And why are crime rates dropping in states such as Florida where private ownership of firearms is encouraged? Simply stated, legal ownership of a gun does not cause crime.

The most recent efforts of the gun control lobby have been to claim that certain types of guns and ammunition are inherently evil. They assign emotional catch phrases such as "assault weapons" and "cop killer bullets" to broad categories of firearms and ammunition in the hopes that people will believe that some guns have an evil nature. Most people who are unfamiliar with firearms do not fully understand what these phrases mean, and they accept the terms being used without question. What people do not often understand is that the term "assault weapon" has been defined to include all semi- automatic rifles, and "cop killer" has been defined to include any bullet that can penetrate type two body armor. It comes as a surprise to most people that a large number of simple hunting rifles can do both. Does ownership of one of these weapons cause people to become mass murderers? It does not, and we must not fall into the trap of blaming the sword for the hand that wields it.

So I've shown that the act of making it illegal to own firearms does little to prevent criminals from getting guns. These laws only restrict people who respect the law itself, the people who would only use firearms for legal purposes anyway. And when we give people the right to defend themselves, we find that criminals start looking for other victims out of fear that they will become the victims themselves. We must work to reduce crime in America, but we should look at the problem realistically, and develop plans that would be effective. It is obvious that gun control laws are neither realistic, nor effective in reducing crime. Therefore, we must direct our efforts toward controlling crime, not controlling legal ownership of firearms.

http://www.123student.com/social_issues/78.shtml

Vocabulary:

a.bid.ing - n 1 permanência. 2 tolerância. // adj duradouro, permanente. // abidingly adv permanentemente

a.bide - vt+vi 1 continuar, permanecer, subsistir. 2 morar, residir. 3 agüentar. 4 conformar-se. 5 esperar, aguardar. 6 suportar, tolerar, aturar. 7 fazer questão de. 8 manter, sustentar (palavra). abide by a) aceitar e executar (uma tarefa). b) ficar fiel a, persistir em. I cannot abide mice não suporto ratos. I cannot abide contradiction não aturo contradição. abide with me for some time venha morar comigo por algum tempo

a.mend.ment - n 1 emenda (de lei). 2 aperfeiçoamento, melhoramento, melhora. 3 correção. 4 reforma, melhoria, regeneração, convalescença. 5 Am. artigo adicional da Constituição

back.lash - n 1 jogo, folga entre engrenagens. 2 revolta, reação

law-abiding - adj obediente à lei

Patch - n 1 remendo. 2 sinal, mosca: pedacinho de tafetá colocado no rosto como enfeite. 3 pedaço de emplastro ou esparadrapo colocado sobre uma ferida. 4 venda colocada sobre um olho ferido. 5 pedaço, porção. 6 pequeno pedaço de terra. 7 malha, mancha. 8 trecho, fragmento, excerto. // vt 1 remendar, consertar. 2 ocultar (defeitos) por meio de sinais ou moscas. 3 fazer uma obra de retalhos ou remendos. 4 fazer às pressas, executar sem capricho. 5 repartir, reconciliar.

pop.u.lace - n populacho, ralé

to fight off - repelir, rechaçar (inimigo, etc.).

towns.folk - n habitantes da cidade

Turf - n 1 gramado, relvado. 2 torrão de grama. 3 turfa (seca, usada como combustível). 4 (geralmente the turf) a) prado, pista de corrida, turfe. b) corrida de cavalos. // vt cobrir com grama.

Sawed-off shotgun espingarda com boa parte do cilindro(tubo) cortado

Zip gun pistola feita em casa, geralmente rudimentar.

blood.shed - bloods.hed.ding n derramamento de sangue, matança, carnificina

am.mu.ni.tion - 1 Milit. munição. 2 meios de ataque ou defesa. // vt municiar

en.tre.pre.neur - n Fran. Empresário

as.sault - n 1 assalto, ataque, investida. 2 violação, estupro. 3 Jur. tentativa de agressão, agressão real. 4 Mil. fase final de um ataque, luta de corpo-a-corpo. // vt assaltar, atacar, investir, agredir, violar.

as.sign - n Jur. cessionário // vt 1 apontar, designar, nomear, ordenar, prescrever, marcar. 2 fixar, determinar, especificar. 3 lotear, dar em quinhão, ratear, aquinhoar, partilhar. 4 atribuir, referir a, imputar, alegar. 5 Jur. transferir propriedades, ceder direitos (esp. em benefício de credores), depositar em juízo. he was assigned a function foi-lhe atribuída uma função.

 

TEXT 3 - In growing numbers, young Americans are finding jobs abroad

 

During the palmy days of the high-rolling 1980s, some Harvard Business School M.B.A. candidates would march into commencement ceremonies waving dollar bills, graphically displaying what they thought their futures held. They have not been doing that in the entrenched and downsized '90s. Now they brandish miniature flags of foreign countries.

More and more Americans are discovering that faraway places can yield up challenging occupations. Gregory Piccininno, 29, a New Jersey native and a graduate of the London Business School, found himself drawn to what he calls the “savage capitalism” of Brazil. He works for a Brazilian financial firm in Rio de Janeiro, socializes mostly with local friends, with whom he speaks Portuguese, and has no plans to leave anytime soon. “As a non- Brazilian, I get a lot of respect, if for nothing else than my abilities in English”, he says.

 

TEXT 4 - The Astonishing Moment

Rapidly, very very quickly, all the colours faded; it became darker and darker as at the beginning of a violent storm; the light sank and sank; we kept saying this is the shadow; and we thought now it is over - this is the shadow; when suddenly the light went out. We had fallen. It was extinct. There was no colour. The earth was dead. That was the astonishing moment: and the next when as if a ball had rebounded, the cloud took colour on itself again; and so the light came back. I had very strongly the feeling as the light went out of some vast obeisance; something kneeling down and suddenly raised up when the colours came... Then it was all over till 1999.

Virginia Woolf in her diary, Thursday, June, 30, 1927.

 

TEXT 5 - “In its 81 years, the Pulitzer Prize has done much more than recognize 12-part newspaper stories on environmental abuse. At www.cjr.org, historians and journalism addicts can now search a comprehensive database of the awards given out annualy by Columbia University. Users can read short descriptions of the winners in journalism, letters, music and drama. And for the honorees of the past three years, you'll find the full text of the articles, as well as the winning photos, cartoons and musical compositions, with audio clips”.

 

Newsweek


 

TEXT 6

Gangs are a violent reality that people have to deal with in today's cities. What has made these groups come about? Why do kids feel that being in a gang is both an acceptable and prestigious way to live? The long range answer to these questions can only be speculated upon, but in the short term the answers are much easier to find. On the surface, gangs are a direct result of human beings' personal wants and peer pressure. To determine how to effectively end gang violence we must find the way that these morals are given to the individual. Unfortunately, these can only be hypothesized. However, by looking at the way humans are influenced in society, I believe there is good evidence to point the blame at several institutions. These include the forces of the media, the government, theatre, drugs and our economic system.

On the surface, gangs are caused by peer pressure and greed. Many teens in gangs will pressure peers into becoming part of a gang by making it all sound glamorous. Money is also an crucial factor. A kid (a 6-10 year old, who is not yet a member) is shown that s/he could make $200 to $400 for small part time gang jobs. Although these are important factors they are not strong enough to make kids do things that are strongly against their morals.

One of the ways that kids morals are bent so that gang violence becomes more acceptable is the influence of television and movies. The average child spends more time at a TV than she/he spends in a classroom. Since nobody can completely turn off their minds, kids must be learning something while watching the TV. Very few hours of television watched by children are educational, so other ideas are being absorbed during this period of time. Many shows on television today are extremely violent and are often shown this from a gang's perspective. A normal adult can see that this is showing how foully that gangs are living. However, to a child this portrays a violent gang existence as acceptable. 'The Ends Justifies the Means' mentality is also taught through many shows where the "goody guy" captures the "bad guy" through violence and is then being commended. A young child sees this a perfectly acceptable because he knows that the "bad guy" was wrong but has no idea of what acceptable apprehension techniques are.

Gore in television also takes a big part in influencing young minds. Children see gory scenes and are fascinated by these things that they have not seen before. Older viewers see gore and are not concerned with the blood but rather with the pain the victim must feel. A younger mind doesn't make this connection. Thus a gore fascination is formed, and has been seen in several of my peers. Unfortunately kids raised with this sort of television end up growing up with a stronger propensity to becoming a violent gang member or 'violent- acceptant' person.

"Gangs bring the delinquent norms of society into intimate contact with the individual."1, (Marshall B Clinard, 1963). So, as you can see if TV leads a child to believe that violence is the norm this will manifest itself in the actions of the child quite, often in a gang situation. This is especially the case when parents don't spend a lot of time with their kids at the TV explaining what is right and what is wrong. Quite often newer books and some types of music will enforce this type of thought and ideas.

Once this mentality is installed in youngsters they become increasingly prone to being easily pushed into a gang situation by any problem at home or elsewhere. For instance, in poor families with many children or upper-middle class families where parents are always working, the children will often feel deprived of love. Parents can often feel that putting food on the table is enough love. Children of these families may often go to the gang firstly out of boredom and to belong somewhere. As time goes on, a form of love or kinship develops between the gang members and the child. It is then that the bond between the kid and the gang is completed because the gang has effectively taken the place of the family.

The new anti social structure of cities also effects the ease in which a boy/girl can join a gang. " The formation of gangs in cities, and most recently in suburbs, is facilitated by the same lack of community among parents. The parents do not know what their children are doing for two reasons: First, much of the parents' lives is outside the local community, while the children's lives are lived almost totally within it. Second, in a fully developed community, the network of relations gives every parent, in a sense, a community of sentries who can keep him informed of his child's activities. In modern living-places (city or suburban), where such a network is attenuated, he no longer has such sentries."

In male gangs problems occur as each is the members tries to be the most manly. This often leads to all members participating in "one-up-manship". Quite often this will then lead to each member trying to commit a bigger and more violent crime or simply more crimes than the others. With all members participating in this sort of activity it makes for a never ending unorganized violence spree (A sort of Clockwork Orange mentality). In gangs with more intelligent members, these feelings end up making each member want to be the star when the groups commit a crime. This makes the gang much more organized and improves the morale of members which in turn makes them more dangerous and very hard for the police to deal with and catch (There is nothing harder to find and deal with than organized teens that are dedicated to the group). This sort of gang is usually common of middle or upper class people although it can happen in gangs in the projects and other low rent districts too.

This "one-up-manship" is often the reason between rival gangs fighting. All gangs feel powerful and they want to be feared. To do this they try to establish themselves as the only gang in a certain neighborhood. After a few gang fights hatred forms and gang murders and drive-by's begin to take place. When two gangs are at war it makes life very dangerous for citizens in the area. Less that 40% of drive-by's kill their intended victim yet over 60% do kill someone. This gang application is one of the many reasons that sexual sterotypes and pressure to conform to the same must be stopped.

Lastly one of the great factors in joining a gang is for protection. Although from an objective point of view, we can see joining a gang brings more danger than it saves you from, this is not always the way it is seen by kids. In slums such as the Bronx or the very worst case, Compton, children will no doubt be beaten and robbed if they do not join a gang. Of course they can probably get the same treatment from rivals when in a gang. The gang also provides some money for these children who quite often need to feed their families. The reason kids think that the gang will keep them safe is from propaganda from the gangs. Gang members will say that no one will get hurt and make a public show of revenge if a member is hurt or killed.

People in low rent areas are most often being repressed due to poverty and most importantly, race. This often results in an attitude that motivates the person to base his/her life on doing what the system that oppresses them doesn't want. Although this accomplishes little it is a big factor in gang enrollment.

So, as you have seen gangs are a product of the environment we have created for ourselves. Some of these factors include: oppression, the media, greed, violence and other gangs. There seems to be no way to end the problem of gangs without totally restructuring the modern economy and value system. Since the chance of this happening is minimal, we must learn to cope with gangs and try to keep their following to a minimum. Unfortunately there is no real organized force to help fight gangs. Of course the police are supposed to do this but this situation quite often deals with racial issues also and the police forces regularly display their increasing inability to deal fairly with these issues. What we need are more people to form organizations like the "Guardian Angels" a gang-like group that makes life very tough for street gangs that are breaking laws.

http://www.123student.com/social_issues/75.shtml

Vocabulary:

gore.1 - n sangue coagulado

gore.2 - n pedaço triangular de pano, viés, gomo triangular. // vt cortar em forma triangular, colocar um pedaço triangular de pano

gore.3 - vt espetar (com os chifres), escornar

gor.y - adj manchado de sangue, ensangüentado

man.ly - adj varonil, valoroso

one-up.man.ship - n prática de tentar parecer melhor do que os outros procurando diminuí-los

 

TEXT 7

Regardless of age, race, sex or religion, divorce has devastating, often long-term, consequences. The immediate effects of divorce, such as hurt, anger and confusion, are evident in both children and adults. The longer-term effects are not so easy to pin point.

Adults are usually able to articulate their emotions and verbalize their distress, anger, pain and confusion to help themselves through this period of transition in their lives. As well, adults have the means and ability to seek outside professional assistance independently. Children on the other hand, are not as likely to have the ability to identify the source or kind of turmoil they are experiencing. Therefore, it is difficult for us, as adults, to be fully aware of the consequences of divorce on our children.

It is estimated that nearly one half of children born today will spend time in a single parent household. Although some of these children are born into single parent families, many more are the product of divorce, and are made to endure the conflict and emotional upset that divorce brings about. At this time, when children require stability and emotional support, the pressures of growing up are often compounded by the stress of divorce and family breakdown.

When divorce involves children many questions must be answered. Questions such as: With whom will the children live? How often will the non-custodial parent have access, and under what circumstances? Although simple to ask, these questions are never easy to answer, and children frequently become pawns in a game of revenge.

Today, mothers make up the majority of parents who are awarded custody, with fathers making up only 13%. However, this was not always the case. Prior to the 19th century, fathers, under English common law followed in North America , received automatic custody of their children when the marriage dissolved. During the 19th century gradual change occurred. Mothers were first given custody of young children and eventually of older children as well. Today, the trend is changing again, with many couples opting for, or courts ordering, joint custody.

Several studies have been done to decipher which custody situation provides the most security and stability for children of divorced families, but it remains that each situation is unique and the individuality of the child(ren) must be the top consideration in making these arrangements.

The decision for a couple to divorce is, at best, an emotionally difficult and exhausting time. The decision is most difficult when there are children involved. Present estimates predict that half of all marriages will end in divorce, with sixty percent of these marriages involving children. Some couples will delay the decision to divorce until the children are grown, in an attempt to avoid placing undue stress on them. However, during this time, many parents become emotionally withdrawn and are unable to provide their children with the support that they require. Depressed and angry parents often find themselves unable to provide the emotional comfort their children crave, and some are so caught up in their own pain that they are not even aware of their children’s. Likewise, parents who suddenly find themselves overburdened by their increased workload may let their routines and schedules slip and ultimately the child(ren) once again lose support.

Divorce is typically followed by a "crisis period" typically lasting for two to three years. This crisis period is commonly composed of three crises: emotional crisis, economic crisis, and parenting crisis. This crisis period is usually worse for boys, and brings with it two general types of behaviour problems among children: externalizing disorders and internalizing disorders. Girls are more likely to suffer the internalizing disorders, and become anxious and depressed, whereas boys are most likely to suffer the externalizing disorders and become more physically and verbally aggressive. Parents, who are frequently caught up in their own crisis, may miss these cries for help, or deal harshly with any bad behaviour exhibited by their children. This only serves to perpetuate the problem by causing a vicious cycle of misbehaviour and harsh response.

Children need two things during the crisis period that typically follows divorce: emotional support and structure. Unfortunately parents, as well as teachers and other close adults, frequently overlook these needs, and school performance drops as a result of the anxiety and divided loyalties that the children may feel.

Among the already dreary statistics, children of single parent households are at risk for becoming delinquent, and daughters are at an increased risk of becoming single mothers themselves.

The repercussions of divorce for the family are many. The quality of life for the family is usually altered and in many cases diminished, at least for a period of time. Many children, who enjoyed a middle-class lifestyle prior to the divorce of their parents, suddenly find themselves living on the poverty line because the average family income for women decreases by almost 40% in the first year. The sudden decrease in family income can produce a ripple effect, changing many aspects of the family lifestyle. The drop in income may mean having to relocate to more affordable housing, often in a less desirable neighborhood, which in turn might mean a new school, new peers, and many other adjustments for the child who is already struggling.

Children it seems, have become the unwilling, silent victims in a popular, nation- wide game of he said, she said. Even children who escape the most bitter of divorces are not immune. Research has shown that almost all children are "moderately or severely distressed when parents separate, and most continue to experience confusion, sadness or anger for months or years after," (Skolnick, 1997).With divorce becoming commonplace in our society, one would assume that social safety nets have been put in place to deal with the emotional fallout. Sadly enough, this is not always the case. Children are still being forced to play grown-ups while grown ups continue to be oblivious to the hurt and pain suffered by these children on a daily basis. Authors and researchers, Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur have proposed some social changes that would help to heal, educate and prevent the devastating effects of divorce on children. Their proposal includes that young adults be educated about the risks of non-marital parenthood. It suggests that government programs such as mother’s allowances be available to all families in an attempt to keep two parent families from breaking under financial stresses. They further recommend that community involvement be increased to help both struggling parents and their children. McLanahan and Sandefur offer suggestions for making these ideas work. These include extending school hours and using the facilities for extracurricular activities such as music, sport and art. Developing mentor programs would give these children an opportunity to become a part of their community in helpful ways while teaching them skills and giving them the opportunity for nurturing adult relationships.

In any case, with the divorce trend seemingly irreversible, it is obvious that we need to do something to take the burden off of the children who fall through the cracks of divorce. Leaving things as they are will only encourage an increase in delinquency and single parenthood in future generations. The time has come to give childhood back to the children and responsibility for the children back to the parents.

http://www.123student.com/social_issues/72.shtml

 

Vocabulary:

com.mon.place - n 1 trivialidade, generalidade, banalidade. 2 lugar-comum, frase batida. 3 citação ou coletânea de citações. // adj comum, corriqueiro, trivial, banal

grown-ups adultos

like.wise - adv e conj 1 do mesmo modo, igualmente. 2 também, outrossim

pawn.1 - n 1 Xadrez peão. 2 Fig. fator de pouca importância. 3 Fig. fantoche, títere.

pawn.2 - n 1 penhor. 2 garantia. 3 penhora. // vt 1 penhorar, empenhar. 2 jogar, arriscar. to give in pawn penhorar. in pawn empenhado

pin - n 1 alfinete. 2 pino. 3 cavilha, espicho. 4 pego. 5 tranqueta. 6 broche. 7 pino de boliche. 8 chaveta. 9 cravelha (de instrumentos de corda). 10 barrilete de 4,5 galões. 11 Fig. ninharia, bagatela. 12 pins pl Coloq. gambias, pernas. 13 grampo (de cabelo). 14 alfinete de segurança. // vt 1 prender com alfinetes. 2 imputar, atribuir. 3 fixar, segurar, apertar. 4 segurar, prender. 5 sujeitar a, obrigar a. 6 xadrez imobilizar peça do adversário.

 

TEXT 8

Pediatric allergies take toll on kids too

 

By Julie Steenhuysen

CHICAGO (Reuters) - Allergies can not only make children out of sorts during the day, but can interfere with their sleep, too, researchers reported in a study to be released on Monday.

The survey of hundreds of parents and doctors found spring was by far the worst allergy season, according to three-fourths of respondents.

Sponsored by Sepracor Inc, U.S. marketing partner of Denmark-based Nycomed Co, the survey found some children's allergy symptoms are severe enough to interfere with sleep and daily activities.

Twenty-nine percent of parents whose children had allergies said their children suffer from a lack of sleep, compared with 12 percent of parents whose children did not have allergies.

"We have known anecdotally that children are affected by allergy symptoms similarly to adults, but Pediatric Allergies in America offers the first data quantifying the scope of how allergies interrupt a child's productivity, sleep cycle and daily functioning," said Dr. Jay Portnoy, president of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

Forty percent of parents said their children's nasal allergies interfere with school performance, compared to 10 percent of parents whose children did not have allergies.

Nearly half of the children in the study take prescription medication for allergy symptoms, but about 57 percent of parents said they have changed their medication, most often because it was not effective enough, according to the report.

The telephone survey included 500 adults with at least one child with nasal allergies and about the same number whose children did not. It also included a survey of about 500 doctors who treat children with nasal allergies.

 

TEXT 9

 

Clot-busting(anticoagulantes) drugs save limbs from frostbite

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Doctors using specialized imaging methods to precisely deliver drugs to frostbitten hands and feet may be able to save them from amputation, researchers reported on Monday.

The radiologists used angiography, an X-ray of the blood vessels, to confirm loss of blood flow in the severely frostbitten hands and feet of 17 patients.

They threaded(enfiar, passar com dificuldades) catheters into the arteries to directly deliver clot-busting drugs to dissolve the blood clots and anti-spasmodics to relax the arteries.

This helped 90 percent of the patients, they told a meeting in Washington of the Society of Interventional Radiology.

"Previously, severe frostbite was a one-way route to limb loss. This treatment is a significant improvement." said Dr. George Edmonson, an interventional radiologist with St. Paul Radiology in St. Paul, Minnesota, who worked on the study.

"We're opening arteries that are blocked so that tissues can heal and limbs can be salvaged(salvos). We were able to reopen even the smallest arteries, saving patients' fingers and toes," Edmonson added.

Severe frostbite can block blood flow and cause small clots to form. These clots can worsen already slowed blood flow.

"For half our patients who received the clot-busting drug Tenectaplase, this technique worked beautifully, saving all fingers, hands, toes and feet that otherwise would have been lost", said Edmonson.

"Overall, in about 80 percent of the cases, it significantly improved patients' outcomes. Within one to three days of treatment, we saw improvement."

(Reporting by Maggie Fox; Editing by Doina Chiacu)

 

Vocabulary:

frost.bite - n ulceração produzida pelo frio, enregelamento parcial dos dedos, orelhas etc. // vt (imp. -bit. p. p. -bitten) enregelar, causar ulceração pelo frio

thread - n 1 linha de coser, fio. 2 filamento, fibra. 3 Gír. filete, veia. 4 rosca, filete de rosca. // vt+vi 1 enfiar (fio na agulha). 2 enfileirar, enfiar (pérolas). 3 formar em fios. 4 passar com dificuldade. 5 fazer rosca. the thread is broken o fio arrebentou. my life hung by a thin thread minha vida estava por um fio. she lost the thread of her tale ela perdeu o fio da sua história. to thread one's way through procurar seu caminho com dificuldade, atravessar com dificuldade


 

TEXT 10

In recent years, euthanasia has become a very heated debate. It is a Greek word that means "easy death" but the controversy surrounding it is just the opposite. Whether the issue is refusing prolonged life mechanically, assisting suicide, or active euthanasia, we eventually confront our society's fears toward death itself. Above others, our culture breeds fear and dread of aging and dying. It is not easy for most of the western world to see death as an inevitable part of life. However, the issues that surround euthanasia are not only about death, they are about ones liberty, right to privacy and control over his or her own body. So, the question remains: Who has the right?

Under current U.S. law, there are clear distinctions between the two types of euthanasia. One group of actions taken to bring about the death of a dying patient -withdrawal of life support, referred to by some as passive euthanasia- has been specifically upheld by the courts as a legal right of a patient to request and a legal act for a doctor to perform. A second group of actions taken to bring about the death of a dying patient -physician-assisted death, referred to by some as active euthanasia- is specifically prohibited by laws in most states banning "mercy killing" and is condemned by the American Medical Association. Although it is not a crime to be present when a person takes his or her life, it is a crime to take direct action intentionally designed to help facilitate death - no matter how justifiable and compassionate the circumstances may be.1 With active euthanasia, it is the doctor who administers the lethal drug dose. Since it is tantamount to homicide, the few U.S. doctors who perform it have been brought to trial but none of them have ever been convicted and imprisoned.

Modern interest in euthanasia in the United States began in 1870, when a commentator, Samuel Williams, proposed to the Birmingham Speculative Club that euthanasia be permitted "in all cases of hopeless and painful illness" to bring about "a quick and painless death." The word "painless" is important: the idea of euthanasia began gaining ground in modern times not because of new technologies for agonizingly prolonging life but because of the discovery of new drugs, such as morphine and various anesthetics for the relief of pain, that could also painlessly induce death. Over the next three decades Williams's proposal was reprinted in popular magazines and books, discussed in the pages of prominent literary and political journals, and debated at the meetings of American medical societies and nonmedical professional associations. The debate culminated in 1906, after the Ohio legislature took up "An Act Concerning Administration of Drugs etc. to Mortally Injured and Diseased Persons", which was a bill to legalize euthanasia. After being debated for months, the Ohio legislature overwhelmingly rejected the bill, effectively ending that chapter of the euthanasia debate.

Euthanasia reemerged in the 1970's, when in 1976 California was the first state to legalize a patient's right to refuse life-prolonged treatment. The Legislature passed the Natural Death Act, which allows for living wills, an advance directive to a doctor requesting the withholding or withdrawing of life sustaining treatment. Today, all states have some form of living will legislation. In addition, the individual who wishes to have such a will, may also designate a family member or friend as a proxy to make the decisions for him or her, should he or she be unable to make the decisions himself or herself. Some states also require the individual to sign a power of attorney to do so.

In 1976, the New Jersey Supreme Court decided the parents of Karen Ann Quinlan won the right to remove her from a ventilator because she was in a persistent vegetative state. The justices unanimously ruled that this act was necessary to respect Quinlan's right to privacy. Some medical ethicists warned then that the ruling(decisão judicial, parecer oficial) was the beginning of a trend-the slippery slope-which could lead to decisions to end a person's life being made by third parties not only on the basis of medical condition but also on such considerations as age, economic status, or even ethnicity.

In 1990, the Supreme Court case, Cruzan v. Missouri, recognized the principle that a person has a constitutionally protected right to refuse unwanted medical treatment. In 1983, Nancy Beth Cruzan lapsed into an irreversible coma from an auto accident. Before the accident, she had said several times that if she were faced with life as a "vegetable," she would not want to live. Her parents went to court in 1987 to force the hospital to remove the tube by which she was being given nutrition and water. The Missouri Supreme Court refused to allow the life support to be withdrawn, saying there was no "clear and convincing" evidence Nancy Cruzan wanted that done. The U.S. Supreme Court agreed, but it also held that a person whose wishes were clearly known had a constitutional right to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. After further proof and witness testimony, a probate court judge in Jasper County, Mo., ruled Dec. 14, 1990, that Cruzan's parents had the right to remove their daughter's feeding tube, which they immediately proceeded to do. Nancy Cruzan died Dec. 26, 1990.

The Cruzan decision sparked a fresh interest in living wills and in 1990 Congress passed the Patient Self-Determination Act. It requires health care facilities that receive Medicare or Medicaid funds (95 percent of such centers) to inform new patients about their legal right to write a living will or choose a proxy to represent their wishes about medical treatment, and what kind of measures will be taken automatically for patients as institutional policy. Where state law permits, these institutions must honor living wills or the appointment of a health care proxy.

On March 6, 1996, for the first time in U.S. history, in the case Washington v. Glucksberg, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th circuit in San Francisco overturned a Washington State law that made assisted suicide a felony. The existing ban on assisted suicide was successfully challenged under the equal protection clause of the Constitution's Fourteenth Amendment. The court noted that, under present law, a dying patient on life support may legally have it removed to facilitate death while another dying patient, not on life support but suffering under equivalent circumstances and equally close to death, has no means by which to end his or her lives. The court, ruled that, bans on assisted suicide constitute a violation of the second patient's equal protection rights under the Fourteenth Amendment.

In his majority opinion, appellate Judge Stephen Reinhardt of Los Angeles wrote: "If broad general state policies can be used to deprive a terminally ill individual of the right to make that choice, it is hard to envision where the exercise of arbitrary and intrusive power by the state can be halted."

Reinhardt's analysis relies heavily on language drawn from U.S. Supreme Court abortion case, Roe v. Wade, because the issues have "compelling similarities," he wrote. Like the decision of whether or not to have an abortion, the decision how and when to die is one of "the most intimate and personal choices a person may make in a lifetime," a choice "central to personal dignity and autonomy."

On April 2, 1996, in the case of Vacco v. Quill, the U.S. Appeals Court for the Second Circuit in New York struck down that state's law making it illegal for doctors to help terminally ill people end their own lives. But whereas the Ninth Circuit decision was based on the Fourteenth Amendment and privacy issues, the Second Circuit ruling in April invoked an "equal protection" argument that people suffering terminal illnesses should have the same right as those, such as Quinlan, who are in a coma and have the law on their side in the decision to halt life-sustaining nourishment or treatment. "Physicians do not fulfill the role of 'killer' by prescribing drugs to hasten death," wrote Second Circuit Judge Roger J. Miner, "any more than they do by disconnecting life-support systems."

In 1997, both Washington v. Glucksberg and Vacco v. Quill went before(ficaram sob a jurisdição) the Supreme Court. The Court took a look(analisou) at the cases and backed away from the "slippery slope" by their unanimous decision to uphold state laws in Washington and New York, banning doctor assisted suicide. Chief Justice William Rehnquist wrote, "Throughout the nation, Americans are engaged in an earnest and profound debate about the morality, legality and practicality of physician-assisted suicide. Our holding permits this debate to continue, as it should in a democratic society." However, the Court left open the possibility that such bans might be invalid when applied to individual cases involving great suffering at the end of a terminal illness.

In 1994 a limited right to die measure squeaked through(foi obtido após muita luta) in Oregon. The Oregon law allowed doctors to prescribe, but not administer, a deadly dose of medication to terminally ill patients, defined as those diagnosed as having less than six months to live. By the Court kicking back the decision to the states in June, the Supreme Court then refused to hear the challenge on that physician assisted suicide law on October 14, 1997. Doctors in Oregon are now permitted to prescribe life-ending medication to anyone who is mentally competent and diagnosed with less than six months to live. But the patient may only take a lethal dose after completing a 15-day waiting period. The law does not specify what medication may be used. Under the approved Oregon law, patients may request doctor assisted suicide if: 1) They are mentally competent. 2) They are diagnosed as having less than six months to live. 3) They request a lethal prescription from a doctor today, and wait the required 15 days. After the waiting period, during which patients can rescind their request at any time, they are free to take the drugs. Oregon Board of Medical Examiners will oversee physician compliance with the law. Patients or families with concerns can contact the board, and a 25-member task force of health and ethics experts will decide some of the policy questions that will guide the state's oversight(supervisão) of the new law. Several experts expect there will be further guidelines to carry out this new policy.

Sooner or later, discussions about euthanasia and assisted suicide in the United States turn to the situation in the Netherlands. Although euthanasia still is a criminal offense there, punishable by up to 12 years in prison, it is increasingly tolerated in practice. Dutch physicians who put hopelessly ill patients to death after being asked to do so are not prosecuted if they follow certain guidelines formulated by the courts.

In a series of Dutch court cases decided between 1973 and 1984, two conditions were deemed essential for legitimizing euthanasia. First, the patient must make the request at his own initiative, repeatedly and explicitly expressing his wish to die. Second, the patient must be suffering from severe physical or mental pain, with no prospect of recovery. Since 1984, Dutch courts have added a third condition - that a physician intending to perform euthanasia first consult a colleague to confirm the accuracy of the diagnosis, verify the planned means of bringing about death and ascertain that all legal requirements are being met. Some court cases have also cited as requirements the presence of an incurable disease or a demand that death by euthanasia not inflict unnecessary suffering on others.

Typically, a Dutch euthanasia patient is first given a shot of barbiturates, which causes unconsciousness within three to five seconds. A follow-up shot of curare produces death in 10 to 20 minutes by paralyzing the respiratory system. A Dutch doctor who performs euthanasia is not permitted to attribute death to "natural causes" on the death certificate. Rather, he or the coroner(medico legista) must inform the police that a medically aided(assistido) death has occurred. The police, in turn, report to the district attorney, who decides whether to prosecute.

Recently, Dr. Jack Kevorkian killed a man suffering from Lou Gehrig's disease and gave the videotape to "60 Minutes." Thomas Youk, 52, was killed by lethal injection of potassium chloride at the hands of Dr. Kevorkian. The ex-pathologist has claimed to have taken part in over 130 assisted deaths, but this time Dr. Kevorkian taken his work to a new level: he had injected the poisons himself, rather than rigging up(suprir com drogas) his homemade "suicide machine" so the patient could kill himself.

When Michigan banned assisted suicide in September, Kevorkian decided it was time for a new - and perhaps final - showdown in court. This new mercy killing case revived the long and contentious(controverso, litigioso) debate over whether we have the right to die-and whether doctors should take part in their patients' deaths. More than 30 states have banned assisted suicide-the act of helping a person take his own life. Now Kevorkian has gone a step further, to euthanasia - the act of actually carrying out a mercy killing.

With his new step toward active euthanasia, Dr. Kevorkian may have lost a number of his supporters(apoiadores, defensores). A Detroit Free Press pool showed most Michigan residents were wary(cautelosos) of Kevorkian's latest move. And some assisted suicide activist who once idolized Kevorkian are refusing to support his graduation to euthanasia. Even if he is aquitted(absolvido) of the first degree murder charge, he could find that he is no longer taken serious and could hurt actually his cause.

Euthanasia opponents envision a bleak future for dying patients who don't have access to health insurance, adequate pain control treatment, or the money to pay for long term care. Some may feel forced or be coerced by their families and doctors to opt for euthanasia. Of course, no law can guarantee that coercion will never occur. We can't know for sure what family members' motives may be in any number of already legal health care and other decisions in which they participate. But should we reduce our available choices because we don't believe people can always make the right decisions for the right reasons or because we fear possible abuses? Or should we continue to expand our individual choices and freedoms while doing our best to prevent inappropriate and coerced influences and to educate all people in critical decision making?

In fact, abuses are far more likely to occur within the present unregulated, covert(escondido,oculto,secreto), and occasional practice of assisted suicide. There is no accountability for such deaths, no procedures, no safeguards, and no reporting requirements. How much safer would it be if laws such as those in Oregon were in place nationwide? Can the debate over legalization of Euthanasia be compared to the debate over legalizing abortion? Wasn't the main reason for legalizing abortion because it was being done anyway. People still had access to abortion, it was just being done terribly. We're in exactly the same situation today. People do have access to assisted suicide, it's just being done poorly.

I believe, that if in this great country, we have the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness then why shouldn't a person have the right to control the conditions of their death as much as they have the right to control the conditions of their living. If procedures similar to the Dutch model can help us avoid unnecessary suffering, it would be worthwhile to work out with the legal and medical professions. By firmly establishing the right to die in America, an extension of the right to privacy, we are safeguarding such fundamental rights against governmental exploitation. If not a legal law, there is certainly a moral law over one's own body and our life should be subject to our own self-determination. We have a right to end our own life; and if we cannot accomplish the task on our own, at our discretion, another person should have the right to end it for us, as an act of compassion.

History of Euthanasia in America

1973- The American Medical Association issues the Patient Bill of Rights. The groundbreaking(inédito, revolucionário, inovador) document allows patients to refuse medical treatment.

1976- The New Jersey Supreme Court rules that the parents of Karen Ann Quinlan, who has been in a tranquilizer-and-alcohol-induced coma for a year, can remove her respirator. She dies nine years later.

1979- Jo Roman, a New York artist dying of cancer, makes a videotape, telling her friends and family she intends to end her life. She later commits suicide with an overdose of sleeping pills.

1985- Betty Rollin publishes "Last Wish," the story of her mother's battle with ovarian cancer. The book reveals that Ida Rollin killed herself with a sedative overdose.

1990- Dr. Jack Kevorkian performs his first assisted suicide, using a homemade machine, to end the life of Alzheimer's patient Janet Adkins. Meanwhile, after protracted(prolongada) legal wrangling(batalha), the parents of Nancy Cruzan, who has been in a coma for seven years, are allowed to remove her feeding tube. Friends and co-workers testify in court that she would not have wanted to live.

1991- Hemlock Society founder Derek Humphry first publishes "Final Exit." The controversial suicide "how-to" book later becomes a national best seller.

1994- Voters in Oregon pass a referendum making it the only state in the country that allows doctors to prescribe life-ending drugs for terminally ill patients. The hotly contested law was not put into effect until last year.

1995- George Delury publishes "But What If She Wants to Die?" a diary chronicling his wife's long battle with multiple sclerosis. The book describes the couple's agonizing decision to end her life with a drug overdose. Delury served four months in prison for attempted manslaughter for his role in her death.

1997- In a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court rules that the Constitution does not guarantee the right to commit suicide with the help of a physician. The decision upholds laws in New York and Washington state making it illegal for doctors to give lethal drugs to dying patients.

1998- In November, Michigan voters defeat a measure that would have made physician-assisted suicide legal.

http://www.123student.com/social_issues/71.shtml

Vocabulary:

as.cer.tain - vt apurar, determinar, averiguar

com.pli.ance - com.pli.an.cy - n 1 complacência, submissão, condescendência. 2 tendência para ceder diante de outros. 3 consentimento, aquiescência. 4 Med. complacência, distensibilidade. 5 flexibilidade. in compliance with conforme, em conformidade com

cor.o.ner - n 1 juiz investigador de casos de morte suspeita. 2 médico legista. coroner's inquest inquérito em caso de morte suspeita

death certificate - n atestado de óbito

ear.nest.1 - n seriedade, determinação. // adj 1 sério. 2 enérgico, severo, determinado. 3 sincero. 4 zeloso. 5 intenso, fervoroso. 6 grave, importante. // earnestly adv seriamente, gravemente, severamente, sinceramente. in earnest, in real earnest, in good earnest de fato, a sério, com sinceridade, intensamente

ear.nest.2 - earnest money n 1 arras: penhor, garantia. 2 entrada, sinal. 3 antegozo, antegosto.

halt.1 - n parada, descanso. // vi parar, fazer parar. to call a halt mandar parar.

halt.2 - n arc. mangueira, coxeadura. // vi vacilar, hesitar, estar indeciso. // adj arc. coxo, manco

mer.cy - n 1 mercê, clemência, piedade, compaixão, misericórdia. 2 perdão. 3 discrição. at the mercy of à mercê de. for mercy's sake por piedade, por misericórdia. Lord, have mercy on us Senhor, tende piedade de nós

lapse - vt 1 decair. 2) passar

o.ver.see - (imp. oversaw, p. p. overseen) vt 1 vigiar. 2 inspecionar, examinar, superintender, supervisionar.

o.ver.sight - vt 1 supervisão. 2 descuido 3 omissão

o.ver.turn - n 1 transtorno, contrariedade. 2 reviravolta. // vt+vi 1 derrubar, virar, emborcar. 2 subverter, destruir, aniquilar

pro.tract - vt 1 protrair: a) prolongar, retardar. b) Zool. estender-se, alongar-se. 2 Agrim. delinear

prox.y - n 1 procuração. 2 procurador. 3 substituto, representante. // adj substituto, por procuração. to vote by proxy votar por procuração. by proxy por procuração. he will be my proxy ele será meu representante. to stand proxy for atuar como substituto. proxy vote voto por procuração

slip.per.y - adj 1 lúbrico, escorregadio, escorregadiço. 2 incerto, enganoso, falso. 3 obsceno. slippery as an eel liso como enguia. to be on the slippery slope, down the slippery slope estar num terreno escorregadio, numa situação perigosa

slope - n 1 declive, ladeira, rampa. 2 inclinação, grau de inclinação. // vt+vi 1 estar inclinado, ter declive. 2 inclinar, enviesar, fazer rampa ou ladeira. 3 Coloq. fugir, escapar. slope arms! ombro armas! slope off Coloq. dar no ! fugir, ir embora rapidamente

spark.1 - n 1 faísca, chispa, centelha (também Fig.). 2 Eletr. faísca, descarga elétrica. 3 clarão de luz. 4 traço, pequena quantidade, partícula. // vt+vi 1 reluzir, clarear. 2 faiscar, chispar. 3 entusiasmar, despertar para a ação.

spark.1 - n 1 faísca, chispa, centelha (também Fig.). 2 Eletr. faísca, descarga elétrica. 3 clarão de luz. 4 traço, pequena quantidade, partícula. // vt+vi 1 reluzir, clarear. 2 faiscar, chispar. 3 entusiasmar, despertar para a ação.

withholding - n 1 recusa. 2) retenção

 

TEXT 11 - I want to be six again

                 A man asked his wife what she’d like for her birthday. “I’d love to be six again”, she replied.

                 On the morning of her birthday, he got her up bright and early and off they went to a local theme park. What a day! He put her on every ride in the park: the Death Slide, the Screaming Loop, the Wall of Fear – everything there was!

                 Wow! Five hours later she staggered out of the theme park, her head reeling and her stomach upside down. Right to a McDonald’s they went, where her husband ordered a Big Mac for her along with extra fries and a refreshing chocolate shake. Then it was off to a movie – the latest Star Wars epic, and hot dogs, popcorn, Pepsi Cola and M&Ms. What a fabulous adventure!

Finally she wobbled home with her husband and collapsed into bed.

He leaned over and lovingly asked, “Well, dear, what was it like being six again?”

One eye opened. “You idiot, I meant my dress size.”

The moral of this story is: if a woman speaks and a man is there to hear her, he will get it wrong anyway.

 

TEXT 12

SEE THE SHOW OF SHOWS

The excitement continues. This summer, once again, the Consumer Electronics Show will be open to the public. Top name manufacturers will return to Chicago to share the latest technological advances in consumer electronics products. And the shows within the show are as exciting as the show itself. Interact with the ever-changing world of Multimedia hardware and